Ngokubhalwe Ngu Leon Trotsky

Le ncwadi ishwankathela ngokubumbeneyo, ngamazwi kaMarx ngokwakhe, isiseko esibalulekileyo ngeemfundiso zakhe ngezoqoqosho. Noko akukabikho mntu uchaza le ngcingane ethi ulutho ngumsebenzi ngokucacileyo ngaphezulu kukaMarx. Ukufinyezwa komqulu wokuqala kaMarx obizwa i-Capital, isiseko senkqubo yonke iphela yoqoqosho, nguMr Otto Ruhle kwenziwe ngokukhulu ukunakekela njengomntu obewuqonda ngokuphangaleleyo umsebenzi ajongene nawo. Uqale ngokukhupha imizekelo nemifanekiso engasasetyenziswayo, izicatshulwa ezincwadini nasezimpikiswaneni ezinomdla ezimbalini nje kuphela zababhali abasele belityelwe, iingxelo zabahloli bamafektri nemithetho ekhutshwe yipalamente, nazo zonke ezibekelwa bucala kuba zisisifundo nje ezimbalini kodwa zingafundisi nto ngenkcaza ngcingane. Wenze kangangoko anako ukuchulumancisa ngokulandelelanayo nangonxulumano lwenkcaza kucalucalulo ngokwesayensi. Ukuqhuba ingxoxo ukuya kufikelela esiphethelweni sayo ngobuchule nangokuqiqisisa, masithembe ukuba akwaphulwanga. Kuyafaneleka ke ukuba esi sicatshulwa sifundwe ngenyameko nokunakekela. UMr Ruhle uncedisa umfundi ngokukhokhelisa ngamagama amafuphi antsingiselo icace gca.

UMarx ubonakala kwabangaqeqeshwanga njengomntu onkcaza icalucalulayo ngokugqithisileyo kuba aziqhelisa ukwenza uphando olunzulu njengolwesayensi nangantoni na ethyuthyathyuthye uluntu ngokubanzi yaze yaqheleka ngokudlulisileyo. Ukurhweba ngekhomodithi sele isisiqhelo esondeleleyo entlalweni yoluntu kanga ngokuba lude lulibale ukuzibuza ukuba kungani na umntu enikezela ngezinto ezithwele impilo yakhe, aze abuyelwe ngamaqhosha angenamthunja egolide okanye esiliva angasebenzi kwanto emhlabeni jikelele. Ayiyodwa kwesi simo ikhomodithi. Zonke iingqikelelo ngorhwebo emarikeni nangoqoqosho eziphuhlisiweyo zibonakala zizicacele zingafuni nkcaza ngokungathi sisimo esizenzekele ngokudaleka konxulumano okanye kobudlelano boluntu. Kanti oyena ndoqo wenkqubo yoqoqosho ngamandla omntu, neziveliso zendalo, nezixhobo zomsebenzi, noomatshini okanye izixhobo zomsebenzi ezisebenza ngombane, nokuhlulahlula umsebenzi, nemfuneko yokuba kohlulelwane ngempahla ekhutshiweyo; kwanokuhlula ngeendidi izinto ezinamagama athi “ikhomodithi”, “imali”, “ikhapitali” okanye “inkunzi”, “iprofiti”, “irhafu”, njalo-njalo; izinto ezenzeka kwinkqubo yoqoqosho esizifanekisa nemibono yephupho kuba singaziqondi yaye singazilawuli. Kunyanzelekile ukuba kubhenelwe kucalucalulo olugqithisileyo njengolwesayensi ukubhentsisa konke oku.

E-Amerika apho umntu onesigidi seedola abizwa imiliyone, ingqikelelo ngoburhwebi ingene ngokunzulu ukugqitha naliphi ilizwe emhlabeni wonke jikelele. Ukuza kuthi ga ngezolo elikufuphi abemi baseAmerika bebengazihluphi ngokucinga ngobuni bonxulumano ngezoqoqosho. Kodwa kanye apho uqoqosho luphakeme kakhulu sifumanisa ukuba iingcingane ngezoqoqosho zinqunguphele. Ukuzika okunzulu koqoqosho lwaseAmerika kuye kwanyanzelisa ukuba abantu ngobuninzi baqalise ukuzibuza ngeengxaki ezibalulekileyo ngenkqubo qoqosho yoongxowankulu. Nokuba kunjani na, umntu owamkela, ngaphandle kokuzibuza, izimvo ezamkelweyo ngenkqubela phambili yoqoqosho, engekacingisisi ade abone ngale ndlela uMarx abone ngayo, ukuba ikhomodithi iyiseli yoqoqosho loongxowankulu, use kude le nokuqondisisisa ngokwesayensi izehlo zalamaxa siphila kuwo.

Ucwangciso Ndlela Lukamarx

Noxa ephakamisa isayensi njengokuqonda ngendalo ephathekayo, ezidalekelayo iziphindaphinda, umntu ulinga ukuzingisa ngenkani ukuzikhuphela ngaphandle kwayo ngokuziboleka ilungelo lokuboniswa ngomoya imiyalelo emi ngonaphakade. UMarx uyamvimba umphelo ngokuqinisekileyo umntu la malungelo athile anyanyekayo; ngokumbona njengenxenye yalo mngcelele wokuzidalekela kwendalo ephathekayo, yaye ukuhlala-kunye koluntu kuzalwa kukuququzelela ukuvelisa nokwabelana ngezidingo zalo; nenkqubo qoqosho yoongxowankulu ilelinye inqanaba kwinkqubela-phambili yoluntu.

 Akukho nkqubo yoqoqosho emi ngonaphakade.  Imbali ngenkqubela-phambili koluntu yimbali ngeenkqubo-qoqosho ezimigaqo-mthetho ingafaniyo ngokulandelana kwazo, enye nenye ngomgwaqo-mthetho wayo. Ukuguquka kwenkqubo-qoqosho kuxhomekeka kumgangatho wamandla okuvelisa (izidingo zoluntu), oko kukuthi kwibanga lobuchule nocwangciso-msebenzi. Inkqubo nganye iye iqhubeke ngokutshintsha, ikhula ngobuninzi ingade iguquke ngokugqibeleleyo ukuze itshintshe ngobuhlobo-buni. Ukwanda okanye ukukhula koqoqosho ukuya kufikelela kumgangatho wemveliso engasalungele ukulawulwa ngolawulo-lwabelano lwesiqhelo, kufuneke lwabelano lutsha. Oko ke kutsho ukuthi inguqulelo epheleleyo sele ingafanelekanga nje kuphela seyifuneka. Intlalo ngokulingana nangobudlelano yamandulo yadedela okanye yaxokomezela ngobukhoboka; ubukhoboka badedela ababusi ngomhlaba nezicaka zabo ezisebenza umhlaba; ukukhula kokurhweba ezidolophini malunga namakhulu alishumi nesithandathu eminyaka kwenza ukuba ababusi ngomhlaba badedele inkqubo yoongxowankulu egqithe emabangweni aliqela kude kube namhlanje. Kwincwadi ebhalwe nguMarx ebizwa i-Capital ucacisa ngoqoqosho loongxowankulu, nezinye iinkqubo zoqoqsho uzikhankanya nje ukutyebisa lo nkcaza.

Ukuphila ngokulima okwanelisa isimamhlaba nosapho lwaso kuxhomekeke ekuvumeni okanye ekuchumeni kwendalo nasemasikweni nezithethe zaso, akudingi lawulo-qoqosho. Noqoqosho lwendalo oluziquletheyo lamaGrike namaRoma luxhomekeke kwiminqweno yabaphathi-makhoboka nawo akwalawulwa yindalo nesiqhelo. Kuyo yonke le ntlalo bekungenanto isemfihlakalweni njengoko ibisengabantu ngqo bengekaphucuki. Kodwa ukuza kule yangoku intlalo konke kuguqukile, kwapheliswa nalontlalo ngonxulumano olwanelisayo nokunikezelana ngolwazi-msebenzi izizukulwana ngezizululwana. Le nkqubo-qoqosho yanamhla idibanisa okanye ibandakanya iindawo ezisemaphandleni needolophu, kwanezizwe ngezizwe. Ukuhlukahlukanisa inkqubo yomsebenzi ibe yimisebenzana emininzi ukongeza igalelo lokuvelisa kuthyuthye umhlaba wonke, kwachithachitha amasiko nezithethe zesiqhelo. Konke oku kwenzeka ngaphandle kwecebo, ngaphandle kwengxoxo nemvumelwano, nangaphandle komqhubi, nangaphandle kokwakha umsinga wombheka-phambili ngokunga kuzanywa ukufihlela kwamntu lowo. Ukuxhomekekelana kwabantu, kwamaqumrhu, kweendidi, kwanezizwe okuza noluhlukaniso misebenzi alunamntu ulilawulayo. Abantu basebenzisana bengazani, bengabuzananga nangezidingo zabo, ngethemba lokuba konke kuzakulunga njengoko kuqhel’ukwenzeka.

Masingalinge sifune unobangela wezehlo kwinkqubo yoongxowankulu ezingcingeni nemibono yoluntu kuba inkqubo yoqoqsho yoongxowankulu izivelele nesayensi ingekaqalisi ukuphanda ngayo. Kungoku nje uninzi loluntu alunalwazi ngemigaqo-mthetho elawula oluqoqosho. Eyonanto eyomeleza indlela asebenza ngayo uMarx kukuba akazihluphi ngakuba abantu bacinga ntoni na ngolu qoqosho, ungqala ngqo ekufundeni ukuba bayivelisa baphinde babelane ngayo njani na indyebo yelizwe, oku komntu wesayensi esinga kwindlu yeenyosi ukufunda ngokwenziwa kobusi.

Akuyiyo into umntu acinga ukuba uyiyo nacinga ukuba uyayenza echaza isayensi yoqoqosho, kukuba benza ntoni njani na. Ngamafuphi yindalo nomsebenzi osisiseko-mandla hayi ukholo nobulungisa. UMarx usebenza ngobukho okanye ubuni obuphathekayo, ukuqiqa nokuqonda kuveliswa yinto ephathekayo, akukho kucinga kuvelisa nto. Indlela asebenza ngayo uMarx inobuchule kuba ilandela indlela indalo noluntu zenza ngayo ukudaleka, kumzabalazo wokuhlabahlabana kwamandla ezichasi okungapheliyo.

Izimvo Zikamarx Nezesayensi Evunyelwe Ngumbuso

Bakhona ababhali abahloniphekileyo, abeza phambi kukaMarx ngezimvo ezimisiweyo ngolawulo-qoqosho, uAdam Smith kwanoDavid Ricardo, ezibhengeze inkqubo qoqosho yoongxowankulu ingekakhuli ize iguge njengangoku, ingekaqalisi ukoyika ingomso. UMarx wazibulela kakhulu ezinika imbeko kangangoko anako zombini ezi ntshatsheli. Kodwa ke eyona mpazamo kwezi zimvo kukwamkela le nkqubo qoqosho njengeyona ntlalo yoluntu yangonaphakade nangona ilelinye nje inqanaba lenkqubela phambili koluntu kwamanye. UMarx wayigxeka le nkqubo wabhentsisa iimpazamo zayo, nokuphikisana kwezichasani zayo, into ke leyo enyanzelisa ukuba iwe okanye iguquke. NjengoRosa Luxemburg waphawula ngokufaneleyo ngelithi, imfundiso kaMarx ngoqoqosho, ilusana lweemfundiso ezihloniphekileyo, olukuzalwa kuthathe ubomi bukanina.

Abasebenza ngesayensi yoqoqosho abazivaleli gingci emazikweni emfundo, bathathela konke eluntwini oluphilayo, olutsalatsalwa ngapha-nangaphaya, luqhekezwa zizidingo neminqweno ephikisanayo, nto ke leyo enyanzelisa ukuba nesayensi ichapazeleke ingakumbi le engendyebo yelizwe. Umzabalazo wabasebenzi noongxowankulu unyanzelisa ukuba ababumbi ngcingane boongxowankulu balifulathele uphando lwesayensi ngenkqatho yabasebenzi bazifihle ngokudwelisa izehlo eziyinyaniso namanani anyanisekileyo ngoqoqosho okanye esezagqithayo, okanye bavele bagqwethe inyaniso, ukubhangaza ukuthembeka kolawulo loongxowankulu, endaweni yokukhupha inkcaza epheleleyo ngoqoqoqsho jikelele. Iimfundiso ngoqoqosho ezikhutshwa ngamaziko emfundo ombuso nangamajelo endaba, ziyikhupha yonke inkcukacha ebalulekileyo kodwa azifuni ukubhaqa imithetho nentsingiselo yenkqubo-qoqosho ngokupheleleyo, yaye azinamdla konke ukwenza njalo. Ulwazi olulona lululo lufumaneka kwi-Capital, incwadi ebhalwe nguMarx.

Umthetho Othi Ulutho (Ixabiso) Ngumsebenzi

Kula maxa angoku eyona nto ebaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni abantu kukutshintshiselana, ukurhweba ngelifutshane. Yonke into ekurhwetywa ngayo yikhomodithi. Nanjengoko isayensi isithi isiseko sezinto eziphilayo yiseli, uMarx waqala ukuphanda ngolawulo-qoqosho loongxowankulu ngokujongisisa ikhomodithi njengeseli yale nkqubo, ukurhweba ngayo kudibanisa abantu ngaphandle kweminqweno yabo ngokunga kungaphaya kwamandla abo. Kule nkqubo yobungxowankulu apho umntu ngamnye ezenzela intando yakhe ngokwezidingo zakhe kungekho ojongene nezikawonke-wonke, yindlela kaMarx kuphela echaza ukuba kwenzeka kanjani ukuthi kube nocwangco kuyo yonke le ngxubakaxa.

Umsebenzi uthengisa amandla okusebenza, umfama imveliso emarikeni, umbolekisi-mali abolekise ngemboleko ebhanki, unovenkile athengise ngeendidi ngendidi zempahla, nothenga athengise izahlulo zamashishini neziqiniselo zemali yemboleko, ingomnye nomnye eneengcamango zakhe nemibono ukuthi kuyongena malini. Kodwa ke kwesi siphithiphithi semigudu nezenzo zomntu ngamnye, kuvela inkqubo-qoqosho epheleleyo, noxa ingazolanga yaye iphikisana, eyenza uluntu lukwazi ukuphila lude lube nenkqubela phambili. Oku kuveza ukuthi ayisiso isiphithiphithi esi, kukho ndlela ithile, ngaphandle komqondo womntu, esi simo sizilungisa ngayo. Ukuqonda ukuthi kwenzeka njani ukuba iinkalo zoqoqosho ezahlukahlukeneyo zisebenzisane ngokungqinelana, kukubhaqa imithetho yenkqubo yobungxowankulu engaqhutywa luvo, ingathathi cala.

Ngokucacileyo imithetho, elawula amasebe ahlukeneyo oqoqosho loongxowankulu, mininzi yaye intsokothile; imirholo, ixabiso, umhlaba, irenti, ipulofithi, iinteresti, isikweliti, indawo ekuthengwa kuthengiswa izahlulo zamashishini. Kuphononongo lokugqibela yonke le mithetho iphantsi kwalo owabhaqwa nguMarx wawuphicotha ukuya apho usingisele khona, umthetho othi ulutho ngumsebenzi, ongowona umisa kakuhle le nkqubo-qoqosho. Umongo walo mthetho kukuba ulula. Uluntu lunamandla okusebenza aphilayo, elungawasebenzisa xa lufuna, kodwa luwabekelele okanye luwagcinile. Xa esetyenziswa endalweni awo mandla avelisa izinto ezininzi ezanelisa izidingo zoluntu. Ngokulandela ukwahlulahlulwa komsebenzi ube yimisebenzi emininzi yabantu abazimeleyo, okuveliswayo kuba ziikhomodithi. Kutshintshiselwana ngeekhomodithi, iziqu ngqo ekuqaleni, ngesilinganiso esithile, kugqibele kusetyenziswa imali okanye igolide. Uphawu olwenza ukuthi iikhomodithi zilingane xa zithelekiswa ngesilinganiso esithile, ngamandla okusebenza achithiweyo kuzo – ukusebenza okungaphatheki, ukusebenza nje – isiseko nesilinganiso solutho. Ukohlulahlulwa komsebenzi kubavelisi abatshakakileyo akuzisi ntshabalalo eluntwini kuba iikhomodithi zitshintshiselwana ngokomsebenzi ochithwe ngokwemfuneko yoluntu. Ngokwamkela okanye ngokudenda ezi khomodithi imarika, le iliziko lotshintshiselwano, ikhetha ukuba ngaba umsebenzi uchithwe ngokwemfuneko yoluntu kusini na, kuphumelele ezona ntlobo-ntlobo zamkelekayo eluntwini, nokwabelana ngabasebenzi amashishini ngamashishini ngokunjalo.

Kodwa ke uqobo loku kwenzekayo emarikeni kunenkcukacha engaphaya kangangoko kwale nkcaza ibhaliweyo kule migcana imbalwa. Ngoko ke amaxabiso aguquguquka ngokunga adlal’ ujingi nolutho olu lungumsebenzi, anyuk’esihla ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi kolutho. Lamahl’enyuka achazwa ngokugcweleyo kumqulu wesithathu kaMarx i-Capital ebhala ngenkqubo yoveliso loongxowankulu iyonke.

Nakuba amaxabiso angaphambuka nolutho kakhulu kangangoko, okubalulekileyo kukuba xa kudityaniswa amaxabiso ezinto zonke zoluntu alingana nolutho lwazo, kuba kaloku ekugqibeleni lulutho kuphela olu luveliswe ngumsebenzi obumiselwe ukusetyenziswa luluntu, namaxabiso akanakho ukgqitha kulo mda, nawento ethile yabarhwebi-bodwa; apho umsebenzi engavelisanga lutho, noRockefeller akayi kufumana nto.

Ukungalingani Nenkqatho Emsebenzini

Kodwa ke ukuba ngaba iikhomodithi zitshintshiselwana ngokomsebenzi ochithakeleyo, ukungalingalingani kuvela kanjani koku kulingana. UMarx wayisombulula le ngxaki ngokubhentsisa ukuba kukho ikhomodithi eneempawu ezahluke ngokucacileyo; ebizwa amandl’okusebenza. Umnikazi wezisetyenziswa ekuveliseni, ungxowankulu uthenga amandl’okusebenza. Nanjengayo nayiphi na ikhomodithi ulutho lwayo ngumsebenzi ochithiweyo kuyo; oko kutsho izinto aziphilisa ngazo umsebenzi nenzala yakhe.  Kodwa ukusebenzisa le khomodithi kukusebenzisa amandl’ okusebenza, kukusebenza, oko kutsho kukuvelisa izinto ezintsha. Ezi zinto azivelisileyo zigqitha ngaphaya kwezi azifumanayo zokuziphilisa. Ungxowankulu uwathengel’ ukumqhatha la mandl’okusebenza umsebenzi. Yilenkqatho eyintsusa okanye engunobangela wokungalingani.

Leyo nxenye ebhatala ukuziphilisa komsebenzi uMarx uyibiza imveliso efunekayo; kuze kuthi leyo agqithise ngayo kule yokubhatala umsebenzi ayibize imveliso esaleleyo okanye eshiyekileyo. Imveliso esaleleyo imele ukuba yayisenziwa likhoboka kuba ngaphandle kwayo ebengeke alidinge umnini-khoboka. Le mveliso esaleleyo imele ukuba yayisenziwa nasisicaka somhlaba esasingavunyelwe ukuwushiya kuba izikhulu zomhlaba ngezingazange zabudinga obu bucaka. Imveliso esaleleyo, nto nje egqitha kangangoko ezi zanduleyo, kwanokunjalo iyenziwa ngumsebenzi, okanye ungxowankulu ebengenakuba nasidingo sokuthenga amandl’ okusebenza.

Umzabalazo phakathi kweendidi zoluntu ngumzabalazo ngale mveliso esaleleyo. Lowo angumnini wemveliso esaleleyo, ungumphathi – ungumnini ndyebo, ungumnini rhulumente okanye mbuso, unesitshixo secawe, senkundla yamatyala, sesayensi, nesobuchule.  

Ukhuphiswano Noxhamlo-Wedwa

Ubudlelwane boongxowankulu, aba baqhatha abasebenzi, buxhomekeka kukhuphiswano olu, ethubeni elide, lungumthombo wenkqubela phambili yoqoqosho lwabo. Amashishini amakhulu afumana inzuzo engaphaya kwale yamancinane kuba awagqitha ngobuchule, ngokuzilungiselela, ngobukhulu obuchaza ukuthenga ngamaxabiso aphantsi, nangobudlelwane nombuso. Ngokuba nezisetyenziswa okanye imali yazo eninzi, eyenza ukuba babenakho ukuqhatha abasebenzi abaninzi kangangoko, kunceda ukuba baphumelele kolu khuphiswano. Sinjalo ke isiseko esingajikiyo, ukuqokelela nokubeka phantsi kolawulo oluyintloko kwendyebo yoongxowankulu.

Nangona lukhuthaza inkqubela-phambili ngobuchule, ukhuphisano luthi chu lubulala amashishini aphakathi naphakathi, lubulale nalo ukhuphiswano uqobo. Ngaphezulu kwezidumbu zoongxowankulu abancinane nabakhudlwana, kuvela igcuntswana eliya licutheka, lezikhulu zoongxowankulu

Kuvele kule nkqubo “enyanisekileyo”, “ebuswa ngokulingana”, “eqhubela phambili” le “eyenzakalisayo”, “encukuthayo”, “echasa inkqubela phambili” yamashishini amakhulu, azimele odwa geqe eshishinini, aphumelele kolu khuphiswano. Aqale ukuzibonakalisa kule minyaka yamashumi asibhozo kwikhulu leminyaka eligqithileyo, yaveza ubuqu bayo ngokucacileyo ekupheleni kwelo khulu le minyaka ukungena kweli liqalileyo. Ngoku ukunqoba kwalamashishini angooxhamla wedwa sele kwamkelwe nangabameli ngokusesikweni benkqubo yoongxowankulu. Kanti ngelixa uMarx wayechaza ukuba oku kusezakwenzeka ejonge iimpawu ezibalulekileyo ezibonakalisa ukuba le nkqubo ithambekele ngaphi, iingcingane zobungxowankulu zazithatha ukhuphiswano njengomthetho wendalo oya kuhlala uhleli kude kube ngunaphakade.

Ukupheliswa kokhuphiswano ngooxhamla-wedwa kusisiqalo sokutshabalala kwenkqubo yoongxowankulu. Oongxowankulu bebezingca ngokukhula kobuchwephetshe nobuchule obudalwe lukhuphiswano, isisona sizathu sikhulu kubo ukuba bafanelwe bubukhokeli kolu qoqosho. Ngokufanayo ukupheliswa kokhuphiswano bubonakalisa inguqulelo yezikhulu zoongxowankulu nabathengisi bezahlulelo zamashishini ukuba babeziincukuthu zoluntu. Ukhuphiswano lwalufanele ukufuna iinkululeko ezithile, phantsi komoya okhululekileyo wolawulo ngesininzi, worhwebo eliphangaleleyo umhlaba wonke. Uxhamlo-wedwa lufuna urhulumente onegunya xa kufuneka ukuze akwazi ukunyanzelisa uluhlu lweerhafu zempahla engeniswa elizweni, iindawo “zakhe” apho kufumaneka khona izisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo, neemarike. Elokugqibela ekuphelisweni kooxhamla-wedwa ngurhulumente kazwilakhe (fascism).

Ukukhula Kwendyebo Nokukhula Kokuphikisana Kweendidi Zoluntu

Oongxowankulu nabathetheleli babo bazama kangangoko banako ukufihlela abantu nababuthi berhafu izinga indyebo yabo ekhule ngalo. Ukuphikisa okusebaleni, amaphephandaba abo asaqhubeka ngokupapasha inkohliso ethi izimali ezikhutshelwa ushishino zikhutshwa ngokukhethwe ngentando yesininzi. I-New York Times xa iphikisana nabalandeli bakaMarx ngelithi kunabaqeshi abahlukeneyo abazizigidi ezintathu ukuya esihlanwini nangona iAmerika ineenkampani ezisisiqingatha sesigidi. Oku kudlala ngamanani; kuthathwe eliphezulu kwelinye ilixa kuphindwe ngeliphakathi naphakathi kukufihla isimo hayi ukusibhentsisa.

Ukususela ekuqaleni kweMfazwe yeHlabathi yokuqala ukuya kunyaka ka1923, ngokwenani lesalathiso, loomatshini namafektri, lehla ku100 layaku98.7, xa ukuvelisa kwamashishini kwakhuphuka ukusuka ku100 ukuya ku156.3. Ngeminyaka yenkqubela phambili eyayi phakamisisa amehlo ngo 1923 – 1929 ngeliya lixa kwakunga nowonke-wonke angatyeba, iindawo zokuvelisa zehla ku100 zaya ku93.8. Kodwa ukumanyana kweendawo zokuvelisa, ezilawulwa ngabaphathi bazo abacingayo, zingemva le kumanyano lwemiphefumlo yazo, umanyano lolawulo, oko kutsho. Ngo1929 iAmerika yayinawo amashishini abhalisiweyo ayi300,000, nanjengoko iNew York Times yayiphawule ngenene. Kuyanyanzeleka ukuthi songeze ngokuthi i200 yezi, oko kutsho i0.07 ekhulwini, ilawula i49.2 ekhulwini yezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zalamashishini, okwakhula ukuya ku56 ekhulwini ngeminyaka emine elandelayo, noxa yakhuphukela, ngaphandle kwentandabuzo, nangaphezulu ngelixa lolawulo lukaRoosevelt. Naphakathi kwawo la makhulu amabini amashishini ankqenkqeza phambili ulawulo lwawo lusezandleni zegcuntswana. IKomiti yamalungu eSenate yafumanisa ngoFebruwari ka1937, ukuthi kwiminyaka engamashumi amabini adlulileyo, izigqibo zamashishini alishumi nambini ekungawon’amakhulu, bezibandakanya ubukhulu becala boshishino leAmerika. Inani labahlalingaphambili balamashishini lilingana nelekhabhinethi kaMongameli waseAmerika. Kodwa abahlalingaphambili kwezi bhodi banamandla angaphezulu kwawale khabhinethi.

Okufana noko kuyaphawuleka kwiibhanki nomshwarensi. Ezintlanu ezona zake zabankulu kumshwarensi iinkampani ziginye ezinye neebhanki. Inani leebhanki liyacutheka, ikakhulu ngenxa yoku kubizwa “umanyano”, ezinye zifak’ekhwapheni ezinye. Intengiso ikhula ngokungaphaya. Kube neebhanki ezingaphezulu kwezinye ezilawulwa zizikhulu ezimbalwa. Ikhapitali (izimali zokungenel’ushishino) yeebhanki neyamashishini ziyamanyana zivelise ikhapitali enkulu ngaphaya yezeemali. Ukuba ngaba umanyano lweebhanki namashishini belungaqhubeka lusenzeka ngale ndlela belusenzeka ngayo kwiminyaka engamasumi amabini nesihlanu adlulileyo – ngokunyanisekileyo, ifuthe lolu manyano liya likhula ngokukhula, kanga ngokuba kule ingamashumi amabini nesihlanu alandelayo, uqoqosho lonke luyakube luphantsi kolu manyano, kungashiyeki nentwan’encinci.

Kubhenelwe kwingqokelela yamanani aseAmerika kuba ingawo achanekileyo yaye acace gqa. Okubalulekileyo kukuthi olu manyano bukwihlabathi lonke. Kuwo onke amahla ndinyuka oqoqosho lobungxowankulu, oku kuqokelelana phantsi kolawulo lwezandla eziya zibambalwa ngokuya ziba mbalwa, kumaxa enzolo nawemfazwe, ngelixa ubupolitiki boongxowankulu babucinezelwe bubunzima bezikweliti zesizwe, kwamadlana karhulumente neyoophangwana esekhoyo, ukuba iye kungena emngxunyeni ekungekho owaziyo ukuthi uphelela phi na, babe bona ooxhamla wedwa besenza inzuzo engaphaya ngegazi eliphalalyo nako konke ukungcola okuza nemfazwe. Ezona nkampani zazinamandla ngexesha le mfazwe zongeza izisetyenziswa kuvelisa kabini, kathathu, kane, nangaphezulu, nokukhula kokwamkela ngezahlulo nga200, 400, 900, nangaphezulu ekhulwini.

Ngonyaka ka1840, iminyaka esibhozo phambi kokushicilelwa kopapasho-nkqubo lwamaKomanisi nguMarx noEngels, umbhali waseFura odumileyo uAlexis de Tocqueville wabhala encwadini yakhe ngolawulo ngesininzi eAmerika wathi “Indyebo ebalaseleyo inokunyelela, inani lendyebo encinane liyakhula.” Le ngcinga iphindaphindwe kaninzi, okokuqala malunga neAmerika, kamva malunga nalo mazwe anolawulo ngesinzi oluselutsha, iAustralia neNew Zealand. Kakade, ingcinga ka de Tocqueville yayise ineemposiso esaphila. Noxa kunjalo, okona kuqokelelana kwendyebo kwangenene kuqale emva kweMfazwe Yamakhaya eAmerika, le ude Tocqueville abhubhe ekuhlwa phambi kwale mini iqale ngayo. Ekuqaleni kweli khulu leminyaka sikulo, isibini ekhulwini sasesinendyebo engaphaya kwesiqingatha sendyebo yelizwe; ngo1929 kwabona abo babe sele benendyebo esisithathu esihlanwini kwindyebo yesizwe. Kwangelolixa, iintsapho ezityebileyo ezingama36,000 zazilingana nendyebo yeentsapho ezi11,000,000 zabaphakathi naphakathi ukuya kwabahluphekayo. Ngexesha lobunzima kuqoqosho ngo1929-1933, amashishini ooxhamla wedwa ayengenamfuneko yokucela kwisisa sika wonke-wonke; kanti hayi eyabo ikhuphuke ngaphezulu kangangoko noxa eyelizwe yayizika. Ngelixa lokuvuka kwakhona koqoqsho okungenamandla ngeekeyiki zegwele zesiVumelwano esitsha, ooxhamla wedwa baphinda bongula ucwamb’olunamafutha amaninzi. Inani labaphelelwe ngumsebenzi lehla ukusukela ku 20,000,000 ukuya ku10,000,000; kwakwelolixa izikhulu zoongxowankulu – abangenakugqitha ku6000 wabantu abadala – bafumana inzuzo egqithisileyo ngezahlulo zamashishini; oku  koku umtshutshisi omele umbuso uRobert H Jackson wayekungqinela ngamanani xa wayesengu mncedisi womtshutshisi.

UFerdinand Lundberg, nangani enenkathalo yesifundiswa, ungumbhali ngoqoqosho ochasene nenkqubela phambili, wabhala kwincwadi eyakhe yabanga ukuxokozela wathi: “IAmerika ngeyoluhlu lwemigangatho yabasemagunyeni lwentsapho ezityebe nokungaphaya ezingamashumi amathandathu, ezixhaswa ziintsapho ezingenakugqitha kumashumi alithoba ezifume nganeno kwazo.” Kwezi kungongezwa uhlobo lwesithathu lweentsapho ezingamakhulu amathathu anesihlanu ezamkela iidola ezingaphezulu kwekhulu lamawaka. Kodwa elona longameleyo leli lungamashumi amathandathu, kumaziko entengiso nakwiziphatha-mandla zoburhulumente. Bangoyena rhulumente kurhulumente woninzi lwedola,

Ngoko ke uxhamlo wedwa lwekhapitali (loongxowankulu), olungaphathekiyo, lugcwaliswa ngenyama negazi apha emehlweni ethu. Oku kuthetha ukuthi igcuntswana leentsapho, elibandakanywa kukuzalana nokuba nenjongo ezifanayo nezabalawuli abambalwa bezikhulu zoongxowankulu, abalawula amathamsanqa ezoqoqosho nezokupolitika zesi sizwe sibalasele kangako. Ngokunyanzelekileyo umntu makavume ukuthi umthetho kaMarx wokuqokelelana kwendyebo kusebenza ngokudumileyo.

Ingaba Iimfundiso Zikamarx Zisasebenza Kusini Na?

Imibuzo ngokhuphiswano, ngokukhula kwendyebo, nangokuxhamla-wedwa yenza ukuba kulindeleke ukuba kuvele umbuzo othi ingaba kule mihla yethu iingcingane zika Marx ngezoqoqosho zifane zinomdla kwabezembali kuphela – nje ngezika Adam Smith, ukwenza umzekelo – okanye ingaba zisabalulekile kusini na. Kulula ukuwuphendula lo mmbuzo xa impendulo ibekwa emgangathweni ophezulu: ukuba ngaba ingcingane ikwazile ukuqikelela ngokuphumelelyo indlela olu qoqosho lukhula ngayo nokubonela kude intsingiselo nengomso yalo ukugqitha nayiphi na ingcingane ekhoyo, iya kuhlala iyiyona iphambili, kungakhathaliseki nakuba indala kangakanani na.

UWerner Sombart, ongumbhali ngezoqoqosho odumileyo waseJamani, owaphantse wangumlandeli kaMarx esaqala ukuphangela kodwa wagqibela “elungisa” izimvo zikaMarx ezithetha ngenguqulelo ngodlame,ingakumbi ezinganyamezeleki koongxowankulu, ukuba zinambitheke nakubo, ngo1928 malunga nokuya esiphethelweni sempangelo yakhe, waphikisa incwadi kaMarx iCapital ngeyakhe engoqoqosho loongxowankulu iCapitalism, ekhutshelwe kwilwimi ngelwimi, eyiyona edume ngokuthethelela ngokomeleleyo inkqubo yobungxowankulu. Emveni kokuba ebonakalise imbeko ngokuxabisa okomhlobo iimfundiso zombhali weCapital, uSombart ubhala kwakhona ngelo lixa esithi “UKarl Marx waporofitha: okokuqala, ukukhula okanye ukwanda kwentlupheko yabasebenzi; okwesibini, ukukhula kokuqokelelana kwendyebo, kwanokunyamalala kodidi lwamachule nolwezima-mhlaba; okwesithathu, intlekele yokuphelelwa ngamandla koqoqosho loongowankulu, Akukabikho nto efana naleyo eyehlileyo.” Ukuphikisana nomqondiso kaMarx oxela okunokwenzeka ngelithi uphazamile, uzisa owakhe “onophononongo ngokwesayensi”.” Inkqubo-qoqosho yoongxowankulu iyakuqhubeka iziguqulela ngokwayo kwangayo yona le ndlela iqale ngayo, ngelo lixa ifika ngalo encotsheni: njengokuba ikhula iba ndala, iyakondelela ukumane isongeza ukuzola, ukuthozama, nokufaneleka.” Masilinge ukuqinisekisa ukuba ingaba ngowuphi na umqondiso olungileyo; ngoka Marx othetha ngokuphelelwa ngamandla okanye kaSombart othembisa, egameni le nkqubo-qoqosho yoongxowankulu iyonke, ukuba iya kuzilungisa “ngokuzolileyo, ngokuthozamileyo. nangokufanelekileyo”. Masithembe ukuba nomfundi uyavuma ukuba lo mbuzo uyafuna ukuqaphelwa.

“Ingcingane Yokukhula Kwentlupheko”

UMarx wabhala iminyaka engamashumi amathandathu ngaphambi kukaSombart, “Ukwanda kwendyebo kweliicala, ngako oko, kukukhula, ngaxeshanye, kwentlupheko, kokuthuthunjelwa kukusebenza-nzima, kobukhoboka,  kokuswela ulwazi, kobulwanyana, kwanokujongelwa phantsi ngengqondo, kwelinye icala, oko kutsho kweli cala lolu didi luvelisa ikhapitali”. Ithisisi kaMarx ebizwa ngokuthi “ Ingcingane yokukhula kobuhlwempu,” ihlaselwe kaninzi ngabalungisi bolawulo ngesininzi  nabalungisi bolawulo lwephathi ezama ukulinganisa intlalo yoluntu noqoqosho, ingakumbi kwiminyaka ka 1896 – 1914 xa ubungxowankulu busakhula ngokukhawuleza, busakwazi ukunikezela amalungelo athile kubasebenzi ingakumbi ababethathelwa phezulu. Emva kweMfazwe Yokuqala yehlabathi xa oongxowankulu, besothuswe yindlela ababephula umthetho ngayo kwabona nobhukuqo-mbuso lwangoOktobha, banikezela ngohlaziyo lwentlalo obalubabaza kakhulu, olwaphinda lwanyamalala ngokukhuphuka kwamaxabiso nokuphelelwa yimisebenzi, ingcinga yenguqulelo kwinkqubela phambili ukulungisa intlalo phantsi kobungxowankulu, zazibonakala zifanelekile ngokupheleleyo kubalungisi ntlalo babo nakwiinjingalwazi zabo. “Amandla okuthenga kwabasebenzi,” uSombart wasiqinisekisa ngo1928 “ akhuphuke ngesilinganiso esifanayo nesokukhula kwemveliso yoongxowankulu.”

Ngokwenene uchasano phakathi kwabasebenzi noongxowankulu lwalusanda ngobubi ngexesha lempumelelo ebonakalayo yenkqubo yobungxowankulu, xa ukunyuka komgangatho wezinye intlobo ezikhethiweyo zabasebenzi, okwakubanzi ngamanye amaxesha, lwazifihla kumehlo angaqwalaseli nzulu, bangaphawuli ukuba isabelo sabasebenzi kwindyebo yesizwe sehlile. Ngolo hlobo ke, nje phambi kokuwa koshishino, ukuvelisa kwamashishini aseAmerika kongezeka ngesilinganiso samashumi amahlanu ekhulwini phakathi kuka1920 no1930, loxesha isixa semali ebhatale abasebenzi ikhuphuke qha ngamashumi amathathu ekhulwini, nto ke leyo ethetha ukuthi, nangona uSombart esiqinisekisile, isabelo sabo kwindyebo yesizwe siwe ngokungaphaya. Ngo1930 kwaqala ukukhula ngokuqaphelekayo kokudendwa kwabantu emisebenzini, yaye malunga no1933 lwaqala uncedo lwabalahlekelwe yimisebenzi, bafumana uncedo phantse isiqingatha semirholo yabo. Inkohliso yenkqubela phambili engaphazamisekiyo yeendidi zonke zoluntu yanyamalala kwangasali kwanto. Ukuwa komgangatho wokuphila komndilili woluntu ngokuthelekiswayo, kulandelwa kukuwa kwempilo ngqo; abasebenzi baqala ngokucutha imali ebayichitha ekuzonwabiseni, kulandele ekuzinxibiseni, kugqibele ekuzityiseni, Kuncanywa izinto zomgangatho othile, kukhethwe ezomgangatho ongathanga tsha, ziphinde zincanywe kukhethwe ezingamagxaba. Iiyunyoni zijike zifane nomntu obambelele ekhetshini eyehlel’emgodini ngokungalawulisekiyo.

Ngesithandathu ekhulwini kwisilinganiso sabantu eAmerika kubantu kwihlabathi jikelele, silawula amashumi amane ekhulwini endyebo kwindyebo yehlabathi. Noxa kunjalo, abangaphaya kwamashumi amathathu nesithathu ekhulwini, nanjengoko noRoosevelt sel’evumile, abondlekanga, abanxibanga kakuhle, yaye baphila enganeno kweyoluntu impilo. Yintoni na esengaphinde ithethwe ngamazwe asemva kweli? Imbali ngenkqubo yobungxowankulu emva kwemfazwe yehlabathi yokuqala ingqine ngokungenakuphikiswa “ingcingane yokukhula kobuhlwempu.” Ukwanda koqhekeko lube mpondo-mbini uluntu sele kuvunywa nazingcali ezamkelweyo zengqokelelo yamanani, kanti nabombuso abasayikhumbulayo imithetho elula yezifundiso zezibalo.

Umbuso ngegqudu kazwilakhe, owafane wacutha okokugqibela izinga lokuwa koshishino, nokuvakalelwa ngendalo kobungxowankulu obuquleth’amanye amazwe, kwafumaniseka kungekho ukwenza ngaphandle kwawo lo mbuso, xa ukuwa koqoqosho kuphelise nalo nkohliso yokukhuphul’umgangatho wempilo yabasebenzi. Ukubusa ngomntu wedwa kuthetha ukuvuma ngokuphandle ukuba ubuhlwempu buya bungena, obu la mazwe asafumileyo abufihlayo. UMussolini noHitler batshutshisa ngentiyo engaphaya abalandeli bakaMarx, kuba kwawona lo mbuso wabo usisiqinisekiso sokubonela phambili kukaMarx. Abaphucukileyo bacaphuka okanye bazenza abacaphukileyo xa uGoring, ngelizwi lomxhomi nelomhlekisi ofananaye, wabhengeza ngelithi izibhamu zibaluleke ukugqitha ibhotolo, okanye xa uCagliostro-Casanova-Mussolini bacebisa abasebenzi bamaNtaliyane ukuba bazifundise ukuqinisa amabhanti ezihempeni zabo ezimnyama. Kanti oku akufani na nokwenzeka kumazwe aquleth’amanye? Ibhotolo isetyenziswa ukuqaba ngamafutha izibhamu. Abasebenzi baseFransi, nabaseNgilandi, kwanabaseAmerika, bafunde ukuqinisa awabo amabhanti bengenazo nezo hempe ezimnyama. Kwelona lake latyeba ilizwe izigidi zabasebenzi zijike zangamahlwempu, baphila ngemfesane yombuso nabanovelwano.

Umkhosi Obekelweyo Nabanganeno Koluntu Abangasebenziyo

Umkhosi obekelweyo wabasebenzi abadendwa emashishinini, yinxenye le nkqubo yobungxowankulu ingakwazi ukuqhubeka ngaphandle kwawo, nanje ngemitshini nezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo nezizenzelweyo, kwanemveliso egqityiweyo, zifumaneka kwiiwehawusi zamafektri. Ukukhula jikelele koveliso, nokuziqhelanisa koongxoqankulu namahla ndinyuka emijikelo yokuncipha nowomeyelo, bekungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kwamandl’okusebenza abekelweyo. Ukusukela apho ithambekele khona, inkqubela phambili yoqoqosho loongxowankulu – ukukhula kwekhapitali engaguqukiyo (imitshini nezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo) ngokulahla ikhapitali eguqukayo (amandl’okusebenza) – uMarx wafikelela kwisigqibo esithi: “Ukukhula kwendyebo yoluntu, kukukhula komkhosi obekelweyo, kukukhula komndilili wentsalela yoluntu emanyeneyo, kukukhula kobuhlwempu ngokwasembusweni. Lo nguwona mthetho jikelele wokwanda kwendyebo yenkqubo yoongxowankulu.” Ithisisi – ebotshwe ngokungenakutshintshwa ne ”ngcingane yokukhula kwentlupheko” yaye eminyakeni emininzi yayihlaselwa “njengebabazayo”, “entsingiselo icalanye”, “nanjengelahlekisa abantu” – sele ide yaba ngumfanekiso wengcingane engenasiphako wezinto njengoko zinjalo. Lo mkhosi wangoku wabangasebenziyo awungeke ubesabizwa njengo “mkhosi obekelweyo,” kuba umndilili wabo awusakwazi ukuba nethemba lokubuyel’emsebenzini: kanti hayi umkhosi uyakwanda kuba abangasebenziyo baya kuqhubeka njalo besongezeka. Inkqubo yoongxowankulu edilikayo ikhulisa ulutsha olungazange lwaba nomsebenzi yaye lungenathemba lokuwufumana. Aba banganeno kodidi loluntu baphakathi kokuba ngabasebenzi nokuba baphantse babe ngabasebenzi, ukuphila kwabo kulixabiso loluntu. Kuyathelekelelwa ukuthi kwiminyaka elithoba (1930-1938), ukungasebenzi kuthabathe kuqoqosho lwaseAmerika umsebenzi womntu ngonyaka ozizi-43,000,000. Ngenxa yokuthi ngo1929, encotsheni yenkqubela phambili, kwakunezigidi ezimbini zabangasebenziyo eAmerika nokuthi kulo minyaka ilithoba inani labafanel’ukusebenza likhule ngezigidi ezintlanu, inani lomsebenzi womntu ngonyaka lifanele ukuba phezulu kakhulu. Uluntu oluhlaselwe ngulo bhubhani lugulel’ukufa. Ukuxilongwa okufanelekileyo kwesi sifo kwenziwa iminyaka ephantse ibe ngamashumi asisibhozo eyagqithayo, xa isifo ngokwaso sasiseyintsholongwane.

Ukucutheka Kwenani Loophangwane

Amanani abonisa ukuqokelelana kwekhapitali abonisa kwakhona ukuthi igalelo lophangwana kuveliso nesabelo sabo kwindyebo yesizwe ziyehla njalo, iifama ezincinane ziginywe ngezinkulu okanye umgangatho wazo wehlile, zohluthwa nokuziphatha, bathwaliswa indwe yokusebenza ngokunganyamezelekiyo nokuswela okuphelelwe lithemba. Kodwa ke noxa kunjalo, kuyinyaniso ukuthi ukukhula kwenkqubo yobugxowankulu kukhuthaze ukukhula komkhosi wamagcisa, wabaphathi, wabasebenzi bakwarhulumente, wamagqwetha nowoogqirha, ngamafutshane “udidi olutsha loophangwana.” Kodwa lo mgangatho, okukhula kungazange kube yimfihlakalo nakuMarx kwangoko, akunanto nokwenza noophangwana bakudala, ababenezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zabo okwakubanika isiqinisekiso esiphathekayo ngokuziphatha kwabo kwezoqoqosho. Olu didi olutsha luxhomekeke ngqo kungxowankulu nangaphezulu kwabasebenzi, nalo ngokufana noongxowankulu bavelisa okungaphaya kwemfuneko, ekuzisa ihlazo elingenambaliso.

“Ingqokelela yamanani ethembekayo” watsho umntu okude le neemfundiso zikaMarx, obesesike sathethe ngaye ngasentla apha umtshutshisi omele umbuso wangaphambili, uHomer S Cummings, “abonisa ukuthi maninzi kakhulu amashishini asel’enyamalele ngokuphelelyo yaye oku kuhlileyo kukukhutshwa okuqhubekela phambili kosomashishini abancinane ekudlaleni indima ebomini baseAmerika.”

Kodwa, uyaphikisa uSombart kunye nabaninzi abamanduleleyo nabamlandeleyo, nangona uMarx, “ukuqokelelana jikelele, nokunyamalala kodidi lamachule nelabalimi,”ngelithi akwenzekanga. Kunzima ukukhetha ukuba ngokuphi okunamandla kulengxoxo, ukungakhathali okanye ukukhohlisa. Njengaye namphi na umntu obumba inkcazo eziziingcingane, uMarx waqala ngokuzibeka zodwa iintsingiselo ezibalulekileyo ngentlobo ezingcwengekileyo: kungenjalo, ebengenako konke konke ukuqonda isiphethelo senkqubo yobungxowankulu. UMarx ngokwakhe ebenako ukuqwalasela izimanga zobom ngokucalucalula izehlo eziphathekayo, njengemveliso yokuqokelelana kwentlobo-ntlobo ezahlukeneyo. Ngokuqinisekileyo, imithetho kaNewton ayibhangiswa kukuba izantya zokuwa kwezinto azifani phantsi kwezimo ezingafaniyo okanye ukuthi iindlela zeeplanethi zokujikeleza ilanga zinokuphazamiseka.

Ukuqonda lento ebizwa ngokuthi “yinyameko” yoophangwana, kuyafuneka ukukhumbula iintsingiselo ezimbini, ukutshabalaliswa koophangwana nokuguqulelwa kwabatshabalalisiweyo babe ngabasebenzi, oku akuqhubeki ngesantya esilinganayo, hayi nangokufanayo. Kuyalandela ke koku kongezwa kwemitshini ukugqitha amandl’okusebenza, ukuya kuqhubeka ukutshabalaliswa kwabo kukuya kugqitha ukwenziwa kwabo abasebenzi, bagqibele bengaphandle kwemisebenzi kwabona.    

Njengokusebenza kwemithetho yamalungu omzimba ivelisa iziphumo ezingafani, esakhulayo negugileyo, nemithetho yoqoqosho kaMarx injalo, izibonakalisa ngokungafaniyo xa inkqubo yoongxowankulu isakhula naxa seyidilika. Lo mahluko uzibonakalisa ngokucace ngakumbi kubudlelano bedolophu nasemaphandleni. Abemi basemaphadleni eAmerika bakhula ngaphantsi kwabelizwe lonke xa kuthelekiswa, baqhubeka ukukhula xa kujongwa amanani ngokupheleleyo ukuya ku1910, xa yayigqitha izi32,000,000. Ngeminyaka engamashumi amabini alandelayo, nangona inani labezwe lonke lalikhule ngokukhawuleza, elabaya lehlela ku30.4 izigidi okutsho ukwehla nge1.6 yezigidi. Ngo1935 laphinda lakhuphukela kwizigidi ezi32.8, xa kuthelekiswa no1930 linyuke ngezigidi ezi2.4. Oku, nangona kusothusa xa uqala ukukubona, akuphikisi nakancinci intsingiselo ethi abantu basezidolophini bongezeka ngoba abasemaphandleni bencama impilo yasemakhaya, okanye ukucutheka koophangwana, nangona ngaxeshanye kubonisa ngokutsolileyo ukudilika kwenkqubo-qoqosho yoongxowankulu iyonke. Ukwanda kwabemi basemaphandleni ngexesha lobunzima obunganyamezelekiyo ngo1930-1935, kuveliswe ngabamalunga nezigidi ezimbini basezidolophini, okanye ukuyibeka njengoba injalo, izigidi ezibini zabantu abalambayo, bengaphangeli, baye emaphandleni, ukuya kusebenzisa la mandla abo alahliweyo (ngoongxowankulu) emasimini ashiyiweyo ngabaniniyo, nawezizalwane, ukuzama ukucutha indlala, kunokujongana nayo uqobo.

Ngoko ke, ayikuba abalimi abancinane, amachule, noonovenkile bazama ukuzinza, kodwa bazifumana bekwisimo senkxwaleko yokungakwazi ukuzinceda. Ubuphangwana bukude nokuba sisiqinisekiso sengomso, buyintsalela endala, yelishwa elilusizi, yezolo. Ubungxowankulu, bakuhluleka ukutshabalalisa ubuphangwana buphele nya, baphumelele ukubathobela kwisimo sentlupheko nembandezelo. Abaneli ukunganiki umlimi irent yomhlaba, nenzuzo ngezisetyenziswa zakhe akayifumani, nenxenye yomrholo wakhe. Ngokufanayo, naba abasezodolophini bayakhuthuka kwithuba besemsebenzini phambi kokuba bafe. Oophangwana abenziwa abasebenzi kuba benziwa amahlwempu. Apha ke kunzima ukuphikisa uMarx njengokuba kunzima ukuthethelela ubungxowankulu.

Ubunzima Boshishino

Ukuphela kweli khulu leminyaka esilishiyayo nokuqala kweli singene kulo kube nenkqubela phambili eyongamelayo kwinkqubo qoqosho yoongxowankulu kanga ngokuba ubunzima kuqoqosho obuphinda ngamaxesha athile bubonakale “buzinkathazo” nje ezehla “ngebhaqo.” Kwiminyaka yenkolo yoluntu phantse jikelele ukuba ekugqibeleni kuza kulunga, abagxeki bakaMarx baqinisekisa uluntu ukuthi ukuvela, ehlabathini, komanyano lwabarhwebi, nomanyano lwamashishini, namaqumrhu abarhwebi abalawula inkqubo yoburhwebi, kuzisa ulawulo ngocwangciso kweziko lokurhweba, nto ke leyo exela ukunqotywa kobunzima kwezoqoqosho kokugqibela. Ngokutsho kuka Sombart, ukunzinyelwa koqoqosho “sele kwapheliswa” phambi kwemfazwe yinkqubo yoqoqosho ngokwayo, ngoko ke, “ingxaki yokunzinyelwa koqoqosho asinamsebenzi nayo.” Ngoku, emva kweminyaka elishumi ubumbalwa, oko kuvakala njengempoxo enganyanisekanga, noxa kungo suku lethu qha apho umqondiso oxela okunokwenzeka kaMarx uveza ubungakanani bosizi lwamandla wawo. Kwisilwanyana esinegazi elinetyhefu, nokungenamsebenzi ukugula kuba kubi ngakumbi; noxa kunjalo, kwesi sibolileyo isilwanyana sobungxowankulu booxhamla wedwa ubunzima buba sisigulo esibulalayo.

Kubalaselekile ukuthi amaphephandaba oongxowankulu, la alinge ngokungaphelelanga ukukhanyela kwa ubukho booxhamla wedwa, asebenzise kwabona abaxhamla wedwa ukwenzela ukuthi akhanyele ngokungaphelelanga ukungabi nalawulo koongxowankulu. Ukuba ngaba iintsapho ezingamashumi amathandathu bezingalawula ubomi boqoqosho lwaseAmerika, yaqwalasela ngempoxo iNew York Times, “bekungabonisa ukuthi ubungxowankulu baseAmerika, ngaphandle kokungabi necebo, bunocwangcwa olucoceke gqitha.” Le ndlela yokuxoxa iphambuk’emxholweni.

Inkqubo qoqosho yobungxowankulu ayinako ukukhulisa nenye intsingiselo kwiintsingisela zayo ukuya kwisiphelo sayo sokugqibela. Nanjengokuba ukuqokelelana kwendyebo kungatshabalalisi oophangwana, ngokunjalo nobuxhamla wedwa abulunyamalalisi ukhuphiswano, buyaloyisa bube sebulubulala. Nanje “ngecebo” losapho ngalunye kwezi ntsapho zingamashumi amathandathu, iintlobo ngeentlobo zalamacebo azinamdla ekusebenzisaneni kwamasebe ngamasebe oqoqosho, kodwa ekongezeni inzuzo yeliqela looxhamla wedwa ngoku xhamla kwamanye amaqela nasesizweni jikelele. Ukuhlatywa kwala macebo xa sekugqibezelwa ukubala kongeza qha ukungabi nalawulo kuqoqosho lwesizwe. Ulawulo lozwilakhe looxhamla wedwa nongxushungxushu azizikhethi; ziyongezana yaye ziyondlana.

Ukuwa koqoqosho kwango1929 kuhle eAmerika unyaka emva kokuba uSombart wayememezele ukungakhathali okungathethekiyo kwe “sayensi” yakhe kwangayo yona le ngxaki yokuwa koqoqosho. Encotsheni yenkqubela phambili engazange yenzeka ngaphambili, uqoqosho lwaseAmerika lwagibiseleka kwinzonzobila yokuphelelwa ngamandla okoyikisayo. Akekho ngeentsuku zikaMarx owayengacinga ukushukumiswa kangako ngokunga kokwenyikima. Indyebo yesizwe saseAmerika ikhuphuke okokuqala ngo1920 ukuya kumashumi asithandathu anethoba awaka ezigidi eedola, kwalandela ukuwa kunyaka olandelayo ukuya kumashumi amahlanu amawaka ezigidi eedola, okutsho amashumi amabini nesixhenxe ekhulwini xa kuthelekiswa. Ngenxa kwenkqubela phambili kwiminyaka embalwa elandelayo, indyebo yesizwe yakhuphuka kwakhona, ngo1929, yaya kwincopho yamashumi asibhozo nanye amawaka ezigidi eedola, yawa ngo1932 ukuya kumashumi amane amawaka ezigidi zeedola, ngaphezulu kwesiqingatha, oko kutsho. Kwiminyaka elithoba 1930-1938 lwalahlekelwa ngamashumi amane anesithathu ezigidi zomsebenzi wontu ngonyaka ne133 lamawaka ezigidi eedola lwendyebo yesizwe, xa kuthathelwa kubasebenzi nendyebo zango 1929, xa kwakunezigidi ezimbini “qha” zabangasebenzi. Ukuba ngaba oku akukokungabinalawulo. Ingaba eligama lithetha ukuthini na?        

“Ingcingane Yokudilika”

Iingqondo neentliziyo zezifundiswa zoophangwana neenkokheli zeeyunyoni ezizilawulayo (ezingalawulwa ngamalungu) zaziphantse zathabatheka ngokupheleleyo ziimpumelelo zenkqubo yobungxowankulu ngelixesha eliphakathi kokubhubha kukaMarx nokuqala kweMfazwe Yehlabathi yokuqala. Ingcinga yenkqubela phambili ngonyawo lonwabu ngenzolo (indaleko) yayinga sele iqinisekisiwe ngonaphakade, ngelixa le yenguqulelo ngobhukuqo mbuso yayise ibonwa njengentsalela yakudala yentswelo-nkcubeko. Umqondiso kaMarx oxela ngokukhula kokuqokelelana kobungxowankulu, ngokwanda kochasano phakathi kweendidi zoluntu, ngokukhula kobunzima, nangentlekele yokudilika koqoqosho lobungxowankulu, awalungiswa ngokuwungqalisa uhlale ngqo emxholweni, kodwa waphikiswa ngomqondiso ochasene nawo ngokucacileyo, othetha ngolwabelano ngendyebo yesizwe oluya longezeka ukulingana, ngokudamba kochasano phakathi kweendidi zoluntu, nangokulungiswa ethubeni kobungxowankulu. UJean Jaures, ongoyena owayephiwe kakhulu kwabakholelwa, beloxesha eliludidi, ekulinganiseni indyebo yesizwe noluntu, ababethembe ukuthi ulawulo ngesininzi kwezepolitiki lufezekiswe ngonyawo lonwabu naseqoqoshweni. Waba njalo ke umqondiso ochaseneyo. Uphelelephi ke?

Ubomi booxhamla wedwa boongowankulu kweli xesha lethu ngumxokelelano weentlekele zokuwa koqoqosho. Ukufuna ukuhlangula uqoqosho kwezintlekele, ngokukhuphula iirhafu zempahla engenayo, ukukhuphul’amaxabiso, ukuchithwa kwemali ngurhulumente, nokuboleka imali kubanini bodwa kuzisa iintlekele ezogezayo, ezinzulu, ezithe sa, ezingapezulu ukugqitha ezi zizandulelayo. Umzabalazo weemarike, izisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo, zamazwe okuqulathwa ngamanye zenza ukuba intlekele yemfazwe ingabinakuphetshwa. Ngawonke, balungiselela intlekele yobhukuqo mbuso. Ngenene, akulula ukuvumelana noSombart ukuthi ubungxowankulu obugugayo buya bongeza “ukuzola, ukuthozama, nokufaneleka.” Kuyafaneleka ukuthi intsalela yokugqibela yengqiqo iyalahleka.

Ukuguga Kobungxowankulu

Nokuba ukulawula imarike kuludurele kanjani uluntu, ukuya kuma malunga neMfazwe Yehlabathi yokuqala, uluntu lwakhula, lwaqhubela phambili, lwazityebisa ngokuwa koqoqosho ngenxalenye nangokuwa koqoqosho jikelele. Ubumnini wedwa bezisetyenziswa kuvelisa kwaqhubeka ngelo xesha ukuzisa inkqubela phambilli. Kodwa ke ngoku ulawulo olungenamehlo lomthetho wolutho awusakwazi ukuqhubeka unceda. Inkqubela phambili yoluntu ixinge endleleni emxinwa ephelel’esithubeni. Noxa, iingcinga ngezobugcisa ziphumelela kangako kutsha nje, izisetyenziswa kuvelisa eziphathekayo azisakhuli. Elona lucacileyo nelungaphazamekiyo uphawu lokuwa kukuma ehlabathini lonkendawonye kweshishini lokwakhha izindlu, ngenxa yokunqaba kwemali efakelw’inzalo ngalamashishini asisiseko soqoqosho. Oongxowankulu abasakwazi ukukholelwa kulenkqubo engeyabo. Ukwakha okukhuthazwa ngurhulumente uxela ukongezwa kwerhafu, nokufinyela kongeniselo “olungathintelwanga” lwesizwe, ingakumbi njengoko ubukhulu becala ukwakha kwalo rhulumente omtsha kujongene ngqo neemfuneko zemfazwe. Ukugula ngesifo sokungatyi kakuhle ngenxa yobuhlwempu, okuzifumane kwisimo esiyingozi ethile nesithobela ezantsi kuwo wona owake wamdala umsebenzi woluntu, onxulumene neemfuneko ezisisiseko sobomi bomntu – ekulimeni. Bengasaneliswa zizithinteli ezibekwa bubunini ndedwa, obuchasene nenkqubela phambili ngokungaphaya, le yabanemihlatyana emincinane, ibeka phambi kokuqhubela phambili kokulima, oorhulumente bobungxowankulu, bazibona kaninzi bebizelwa ukuthintela ngokungeyondalo ukuvelisa, ngokusebenzisa okumiswe ngokomthetho, nokuthatha amanyathelo okuphatha, ongokwathusa amachule kumanyano lokuncedisana, ngelixa amanani abo encipha. Makubhalwe ezimbalini ukuthi, urhulumente welona lake lanamandla amakhulu ngokungaphaya ilizwe lobungxowankulu, upha abalimi amabhaso ukubathintela ukutyala imbewu, ukwehlisela ezantsi ngokungeyondalo elingeniselo lesizwe eliseliphantsi kakade. Iziphumo ziyazixela ngokwazo: nangona kukukhulu kangako ukuvelisa okungenzeka, okuqinisekiswa ngamava nesayensi, uqoqosho lokulima aluphumi kwintlekele ebolile, ngelixa inani labalambayo, ekungelona ninzi loluntu, elanda ukugqitha ukwanda koluntu lwehlabathi lonke xa kuthelekiswa. Abathintela nkqubela phambili bafumanisa kuyipolitiki enengqondo ukuthethelela inkqubo ese yehlele ekuphambaneni okudilizayo, yaye bagxeka abe dabi lesoshiyalizim ngelithi baphambene kuba balwela ibhakubha,        

Ulawulo Ngegqudu Nesigqibo Esitsha (New Deal)

Iindlela ezimbini zokusindisa ubungxowankulu, obusebugwebelwe ukutshabalala yimbali, namhlanje ziyakhuphisana ehlabathini, ukulawula ngegqudu lomntu yedwa neSigqibo Esitsha, ngokuzibonakalisa ngako konke ezinako. Ulawulo ngegqudu luzisekela ngocwangciso lokusebenza ngokutshabalalisa imibutho yabasebenzi, ngokunyamalalisa intlalo-ntle, nokuphelisa konke-konke amalungelo olawulo ngentando yesininzi, ukwenzela ukunqanda ukuqala kwakhona komzabalazo wodidi labasebenzi. Umbuso wegqudu umisa ngomthetho okanye ugunyazisa ukuthathelwa phantsi kwabasebenzi, nokwenza oophangwana babengamahlempu, egameni lokusindisa “isizwe” no”hlanga”- sele ingawona magama lombuso uzifihla ngawo.

Inkqubo yeSigqibo Esitsha, elinga ukusindisa ulawulo ngentando yesininzi, ngokugibisela amaqhekeza anomhluzi kubukhokheli obuthathelwa phezulu babasebenzi nobabalimi, ngokomfikelelo wayo obanzi ifumaneka kuphela kwizizwe ezityebileyoi, kanjalo ke iyinkqubo yaseAmerika ngokugqithisileyo. Umbuso ulinge ukubeka inxenye yeendleko zale nkqubo emagxeni wooxhamla wedwa, ngokubayala ukuthi baphakamise imirholo nokwenza usuku lokusebenza lufuphi yaye ngokwenze njalo kongezeke amandla entengo yabantu kube sekongezeka ukuvelisa. ULeon Blum walinga ukutolika le ntshumayelo ngesiFrentshi. Akwanceda nto! Ungxowankulu waseFransi akaveliseli ukuvelisa nje, nanjengowaseAmerika uvelisela iprofithi. Nanini na uhlala elungele ukuphungula ukuvelisa, nokutshabalalisa imveliso uqobo, ukuba oko kuzisa ukukhuphuka kwesabelo sakhe kwindyebo yesizwe,

Inkqubo yeSigqibo eSitsha ayingqinelani ngakumbi ngoba, noxa ishumayela kwizikhulu zobungxowankulu ngoncedo lobuninzi ngaphezulu kokunqaba, umbuso ukhupha amabhaso okuphungula ukuvelisa. Ingaba ukhona umbhodamo ogqitha lo na? Umbuso uphikisa abagxeki bawo ngombuzo: ningenza ngcono na? Oku kuthetha ukuthi ngenkqubo yobungxowankulu alikho ithemba.

Ekuqaleni ko1933, oko kutsho ethuubeni le minyaka emithandathu edlulileyo, urhulumente obandakanyisa amazwe abe lilizwe elinye, la mazwe  noomasipala bezi dolophu, banikele kubangasebenziyo, malunga neshumi elinesihlanu lamawaka ezigidi zeedola, ukuthoba inkxwaleko, imali ngokwayo engalinganiyo konke, yaye iyencinane inxenye yemirholo ephulukiweyo, kodwa ngaxeshanye, xa kuthekelelwa nokuhla kwendyebo yesizwe, iyimali eninzi kakhulu. Ngo1938, eyayingunyaka wokuvuselelwa koqoqosho noko, imboleko yesizwe saseAmerika yakhuphukela kumawaka ezigidi amabini eedola ukugqitha umda wamashumi amathathu anesibhozo amawaka ezigidi eedola, okanye ishumi nambini lamawaka ezigidi eedola ngaphezulu kwencotshe eyafikelelwa ekupheleni kweMfazwe Yehlabathi. Yaye kuthetha ukuthini ke? Kwangoko ngo1939 yagqitha umda  wamashumi amane amawaka ezigidi eedola. Imboleko yesizwe ekhulayo kakade ingumthwalo wezizukulwana ezilandelayo.  Kodwa kwasona ISigqibo Esitsha sibe khona ngenxa yendyebo engako eyakhiwe zizizukulwana ezadlulayo. Sisizwe esityebe kakhulu esingazenelisa ngophuhliso olunenkcithakalo engako. Kodwa nesizwe esinjalo asikwazi ukuqhubeka siphila ngokuxhamla kwizizukulwana ezigqithileyo ngonaphakade. Inkqubo yeSigqibo Esitsha, ngeempumelelo zaso ezinganyanisekanga, nokukhula okunyanisekileyo kwemboleko yesizwe, zikhokelela ngokunganqandekiyo kuchaso nkqubela phambili okunobundlobongela lobungxowankulu, nokudubula okutshabalalisayo kobungxowankulu bokuqulath’amanye amazwe. Ngamanye amazwi, ikwakhomba kwayona le ndlela esa kwinkqubo yombuso ngegqudu.

Kukungabikho Mgaqweni Okanye Sisithethe?

USibakhulu weSebe lezeKhaya uHarold L Ickes ucinga ukuthi “enye yezinto ezingekho emgaqweni ngendlela emangalisayo okugqithisileyo embalini yonke” kukuthi iAmerika elawulwa ngentando yesininzi ngenkangeleko, ilawulwa ngozwilakhe ngokwesiseko: “IAmerika, umhlaba obuswa ngentando yesininzi kodwa ilawulwa ukuya ngo1933 (!) ubuncinane ngooxhamla wedwa, aba ngokwabo balawulwa ligcuntswana lezikhulu zoongxowankulu.” Ukuxilonga kulungile ngaphandle kokwazisa ukuthi ukuvela kuka Roosevelt ulawulo ngooxhamla wedwa lwaphela okanye lwaba ethe-ethe. Noxa oku uIckes akubiza “enye yezinto ezingekho emgaqweni ngendlela emangalisayo okugqithisileyo embalini yonke,” ngenene, sisithethe esingenakuphikiswa sobungxowankulu. Ukulawulwa kwababuthathaka ngabanamandla, kwabaninzi ngabambalwa, kwabasebenza nzima ngabaphangi, ngumthetho-siseko wombuso ngentando yesininzi wobungxowankulu. Okubalula iAmerika kwamanye amazwe kukuba nomda omkhulu ngobubanzi nobukhulu ngenkohlakalo kwiimpikisano zobungxowankulu. Ukungabikho kwezolo lokubusisa ngomhlaba, ukutyeba ngezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo, ukuba nabantu abakhutheleyo nabanesibidi sokuqal’ushishino, ngelifuphi, zonke iimfuneko ezazixela  ukukhula okungenakuphazanyiswa bolawulo ngentando yesininzi, zizise ngokwenene ukuqokelelana kwendyebo okugqithisileyo. Ethembisa njalo kweli lixa ukucela umngeni  kooxhamla wedwa ade oyise, uIckes ubuyel’ emva ngokungakhathaliyo kuThomas Jefferson, uAndrew Jackson, uAbraham Lincoln, uTheodore Roosevelt noWoodrow Wilson njengabandulele uFranklin D Roosevelt. “ Kungathi bonke okanye abona babalulekileyo embalini yoluntu, watsho ngosuku 30 Disemba 1937, “badumile kuba babesilwa ngenkani nangobukhalipha ukuthintela nokulawula ukuqokelelana kakhulu kwendyebo namandla kwizandla ezimbalwa. Kodwa kuyalandela emagameni akhe isiqhamo sokuthi “babesilwa ngenkani nangobukhalipha” kukulawulwa kolawulo ngentando yesininzi zizityebi.

Ngesizathu esingenakuchazwa uIckes ucinga ukuba kweli xesha ukunqoba kuqinisekisiwe, xa ngaba abantu bayaqonda ukuthi idabi “alikho phakathi kweSigqibo Esitsha nabarhwebi bomgangatho ophakathi abaphucukileyo, kodwa phakathi kweSigqibo Esitsha neendywala zeentsapho ezingamashumin’ amathandathu eziza nabanye abarhwebi baseAmerika ngoloyiko lolawulo lazo.” Lo mthetheleli onegunya akachazi ukuthi zikwaze njani ezi “ndywala” ukulawula bonke abarhwebi abaphucukileyo, noxa kunombuso wolawulo ngentando yesininzi “nabona babalulekileyo embalini yoluntu.” OoRockefella, ooMoorgan, ooMellon, ooVanderbilt, ooGuggenheim, ooFord, nabanye abazange bangenela IAmerika besuka ngaphandle, njengoCortez engenela iMexico; bakhula ngokulungelanisiweyo “ebantwini” okanye ngokuthe ngqo, kudidi “labarhwebi abaphucukileyo bamashishini” babe sele baba, ngokungqinelana nomqondiso kaMarx, zizikhulu zendalo encotsheni yobungxowankulu. Ekubeni ulawulo ngentando yesininzi oluselutsha lunamandla ngexesha lentlakohlaza, lungabanga nako ukuthintela ukuqokelelana kwendyebo, indyebo isasencinane, ingaba kusengakholelwa na nokomzuzu ukuthi ulawulo ngentando yesininzi olugugileyo lusengakwazi ukuthambisa impikisano yeendidi zoluntu esezikhule kangangoko? Kakade, amava ngeSigqibo Esitsha akabonisanga mhlaba wokuthemba ukuba ekugqibeleni kuza kulunga. Xa wayekhaba izinto amashishini amakhulu atyhola urhulumente ngazo, uRobert H Jackson, umntu ophezulu kwibhunga lolawulo, wangqinela ngamanani ukuthi ngexesha lokubusa kukaRoosevelt inzuzo yezikhulu zobungxowankulu yakhuphukela phezulu apho bebe sele bangasakuphuphi nokukuphupha ngelixa lobongameli bukaHoover, apho kulandelayo, nakwesiphi na isimo, ukuthi idabi likaRoosevelt nooxhamla wedwa, alikwazanga kunqoba njengawabanye ababephambi kwakhe.

Nangona beziva bebizelwe ukuthethelela isiseko sobungxowankulu, abalungisi ntlalo ngendalo yabo bazibonakalisa bengenamandla okwenza imithetho yabo isebenzisane neyamapolisa. Yintoni engenye abanokuyenza ngaphandle kokufundisa ngokuziphatha kakuhle? Umnu Ickes, njengabanye abaphathiswa bezigqeba zombuso nababhali bamaphephandaba ngeSigqibo Esitsha, ugqibela ecela ooxhamla wedwa ukuba bangalibali ukuziphathe kakuhle nangemithetho-siseko yolawulo ngentando yesininzi. Oku kungcono njani nokuthandazela imvula?  Ngokuqinisekileyo, imibono kaMarx ngabanini bezisetyenziswa kuvelisa ingcono ngesayensi, “Njengongxowankulu,” sifunda njalo kwincwadi iCapital, “uyikhapitali (imali engeniselwa ukwenza inzuzo ngoshishino) nje eguqulelwe ebuntwini. Umphefumlo wakhe ngumpefumlo wekhapitali. Kodwa ikhapitali inenjongo enye qha kuphela ebomini ukwenza ulutho olusaleleyo.” Ukuba ngaba ukuziphatha kukangxowankulu bekuxhomekeke kwiimpawu zomphefumlo wesiqu sakhe okanye kumculo ophuma kuSibakhulu weSebe Lezekhaya, ngekungena maxabiso aphakathi okanye imirholo ephakathi, nokugcinwa kweencwadi zorhwebo, noqoqosho loongxowankulu lilonke. Kude kube ngoku ukugcinwa kweecwadi zoshishino kuyaqhubeka ukuphumelela yaye kuyithethelela ngamandla  ingqiqo ephathekayo ngembali yoluntu.

Ukutyhola Umthetho Ngolwazi Ongenalo

Umtshutshisi omel’umbuso wangaphambili, uHomer S Cummings wathi, ngoNovemba ka1937,” Ngaphandle kokuba siphelise uxhamla-wedwa, uyakusoloko efumana indlela yokuchitha-chitha konke ekulungiswayo ngentlalo de agqibele edobelela phantsi umgangatho wentlalo kawonke-wonke. Xa esothuswa ngamanani abonisa ukuba “intsingiselo ekukhuleni nokuqokelelana kwendyebo nokulawulwa koqoqosho ayiphazameki,” uCummings wanyanzeleka kwangelo lixa ukuvuma ukuba imigudu yepalamente neyezindlu zolawulo-mthetho ukuphikisana neetrasti okanye nomanyano lwabarhwebi, ayibasi ndawo. “Ukuzimisela okunenjongo embi, kunzima ukuba kwenzeke xa ingumbandela wesiphumo okanye isiqhamo sezoqoqosho, uqhubeke watsho ukukhalaza. Lo nguye kanye usingaye! Kakubi ngakumbi kunako oko: impikiswano ngabomthetho nomanyano lwabarhwebi iza nombhodamo obhidanisayo. Oku kudlala ngamagama okonwabisayo kubonakalisa ngokucacileyo ukungabi naluncedo okanye ukungabi namandla kobulingisa bolawulo ngomelo xa buthelekiswa nomthetho kaMarx wolutho. Alikho ithemba ukuba lo angina esihlalweni sika Cummings, uFrank Murphy uya kuba nako ukufezekisa le minqweno, nto ke leyo ekhankatha ukungabi namandla komthetho kwezoqoqosho.

Ukuzisa Izolo Namhlanje

Akunakungangqinelani noProfesa Lewis W Douglas, owayesakuba ngumongameli eburhulumenteni bakaRooseveldt xa egxeka urhulumente ngoku “hlasela uxhamla-wedwa kwenye indima esakube ekhuthaza uxhamla-wedwa kwezinye.” Kanti akunangakumbi. Ngokutsho kukaMarx urhulumente yikomiti yolawulo lodidi elilawula uqoqosho.

Namhlanje ooxhamla-wedwa ngabona abanamandla phakathi kodidi loongxowankulu. Urhulumente akanakukwazi ukulwa nooxhamla-wedwa, oko kutsho akakwazi ukuchasana nabo abusa ngentando yabo. Ngoko ke ihlasela inxenye yooxhamla-wedwa ngokucela uncedo kwenye. Ngokumanyana neebhanki namashishinana alula urhulumente uyakwazi ukukhuphela amanqindi okwethutyana, umanyano lwabarhwebi bamashishini amakhulu, angayekiyo ukwenza inzuzo engaphaya nangoko kunjalo.

Koku kuzityhola ngolwazi ongenalo uLewis Douglas akabheneli kwisayensi, uphindezela ngokwakhe ukuzityhola ngolwazi angenalo. Ubona intsusa yobuxhamla-wedwa ingeloqoqosho loongxowankulu, kodwa iziirhafu ezikhutshulwa ukukhusela ooxhamla-wedwa; abe sele ebona ngokufanelekileyo ukuba ayikho imfuneko yokuba kudilizwe olu lawulo loongxowankulu, kufuneka kuthotywe nje iirhafu. “Ngaphandle kokuba kubuyiselwe inkululeko kumaziko okuthengisa, kuyathandabuzeka ukuba  eyamaziko onke  iya kuba nako ukusinda, kwezokurhweba, kwezokuthetha, kwezemfundo,  “inkululeko kurhwebo namanye amazwe nakulawulo lwesininzi  okanye kulawulo lomntu yedwa. Kodwa inkululeko yokurhweba neziye izizwe ayikwazi ukwenzeka ngaphandle kokhuphiswano. Yaye ukhuphiswano alukwazi ukukhululeka phantsi koxhamla-wedwa. Ngelishwa uMnu Douglas, nanje ngoMnu Ickes, noMnu Jackson, noMnu Cummings, kwanoMnu Roosevelt abakayifumani indlela yokunyanga ubuxhamla-wedwa, oko kutsho nenguqulelo mbuso ngodlame, kwanombuso womntu yedwa.

Inkululeko yorhwebo, nanje ngenkululeko yokhuohiswano, kwanenkqubela phambili yoophangwana, zonke zizinto zezolo elingasayi kubuya. Ukubuyisa izolo sele kuwuwona mmiselo wabo bakholelwa kulawulo lwesininzi; ukubuyisa nangaphezulwana “inkululeko yamashishini amancinane namakhudlwana, kutshintshwe indlela emisiweyo yokusebenza ngemali, nangemboleko yayo ukuba ibe novelwano nabo, ukukhulula amaziko entengiso emakhamandeleni weetrasti okanye omanyano lwabarhwebi, ukuba kugxothwe apho izahlulo zithengwa zithengiswe khona, abo baqeqeshelwe ukuthenga bathengise izahlulo zamashishini ukuze bafumane inzuzo; ngelithi bazama ukulungisa ukurhwebisana kwezizwe. Aba balungisi bade babe namaphupha okumisa inkqubela phambili ngobuchule, ngelithi imishini ethile mayingasetyenziswa kuba iphazamisa inzolo eluntwini nokwenza ukukhathazeka okuninzi. Enye yeengcaphephe zesayensi e-Amerika yaphawula, isinekile, ngelithi ngokucacileyo ukukhuseleka kungafumaneka ukuba ngaba ubomi bungabuyela ebomini beseli enye, i-amoeba ezonwabeleyo.

Umillikan Neemfundiso Zikamarx

Kwayena lo mfundi wesayensi, u-Dr Robert A Millikan, ngelishwa ujonga emva kunokukhangela phambili. Xa ethethelela isayensi ngomhlawesi 7 Disemba 1937 waphawula wathi “ingqokelela ngamanai ezinto ezithile eAmerika ibonisa ukuthi intelekelelo ethile ekhulwini labantu, esebenzela inzuzo yandile kule minyaka ingamashumi amahlanu agqithileyo, xa bekusetyenziswa isayensi ngokukhawuleza okugqithisileyo.” Oku kukhusela inkqubo qoqosho yoongxowankulu ngokunga kukhuselwa isayensi ayonwabisi mntu. Eli lelona lixa kwesi siqingatha sekhulu le minyaka “kuqhawuke umqokozo odibanisa izigaba zamaxesha”, yaye nobudlelwane bezoqoqosho nezobuchule butshintshe ngokucacileyo. Esi sigaba sexesha esithelekelelwa nguMillikan sidibanisa isiqalo sokuwa koqoqosho nencotshe yenkqubela phambili yalo.

Ukufihla ukuwa koqoqosho ngoku kwehle mhlabeni jikelel kukuzimisela ukucelela uxolo oongxowankulu. Ukukhaba inkqubo yesoshiyalizim ngokungalungiselelwanga akunakunika sidima no Henry Ford, uDr Millikan usixelela ukuthi akukho ndlela yokwabelena engonelisa uluntu kungongezwanga izinto ekwabelwana ngazo. Ewe, ngaphandle kwentandabuzo! Kulusizi kodwa ke kuba uMnu wesayensi akabachazelanga abangaqeshwanga ukuba bona bangangenela kanjani ukuya kongeza indyebo yesizwe. Intshumayelo engaphathekiyo ukuba abantu mabazifundise ububele bokubeka imali, nokuthi mabazifundise ubuchule bazokwazi ukwenza ukukhupha izinto ngoninzi, azizunika msebenzi ongaphangeliyo umsebenzi, zingenakukwazi ukuvala isikhewu se budget deficit, singeke sikhuphe uqoqosho engxingweni yobunzima.

Eyona nto eyenza ukuba uMarx ohluke kwabanye abantu, ngamandla engqondo enxulumanisa konke jikelelle ngokuthelekisayo okufanelekileyo, kukwazi ukuqonda izenzeko nemingcelele yamaziko ahlukahlukeneyo, nokuqhakamshelana kwazo ngemvelo. Engenabungcaphephe kwisayensi yendalo, waba ngowokuqala ukuxabisa zonke izinto ezibhaqileyo, njengengcingane kaDarwin, ukwenza umzekelo. Ukubalasela kukaMarx kuqinisekiswe yindlela asebenza ngayo, hayi ubukrelekrele bengqondo. Iingcaphephe zesayensi ezizinikele winkqubo yoongxowankulu, zingazibona zingaphaya kwesoshiyalizim; kodwa nanje ngomzekelo kaRobert Milikan ngasentla apha, ngobunzulu lwazi ngoluntu aziqulethe lutho. Bafanele ukuthi bafunde ukucinga ngokwesayensi apha kuMarx.

Ukuvelisa Kwamashishini Okungenzekayo Nobumnini Wedwa

Emyalezweni kwiCongress kaRoosevelt ekuqaleni konyaka ka1937 wabonakalisa ukunqwenela ukukhuphula indyebo yesizwe ukuya ku 90 ukuya ku 110 wamawaka ezigidi, nangona, kambe, engakhange abonise ukuba njani na. Iyonke le minqweno incinane kakhulu. Ngo 1929 xa kwakunabantu abamalunga nezigidi ezimbini abangekho msebenzini, indyebo yesizwe yayifikelela ku 81 wamawaka ezigidi. Xa kungasetyenziswa zonke izisetyenziswa-kuvelisa, olu dweliso nkqubo lungenzeka lude lugqithe ngaphaya kude. Imishini, iziveliso zendalo, abantu, zonke izinto zikhona, singekabali ukuthi abantu bayazidinga iziveliswa. Xa ngaba, nangona kunjalo, oku akuphumezeki, yaye ngenene akuphumezeki, unobangela woko mnye qha, kukuhlabana okanye kukuchasana okungenaxolo okuvele phakathi kobumnini wedwa benkqubo-qoqosho yoongxowankulu nemfuneko yoluntu ukuba kongezwe imveliso ekhutshwayo. Kuphando (National Survey of Potential Production Capacity) oludumileyo olwaxhaswa ngurhulumente wase-Amerika kwafikelelwa ekugqibeni ukuthi indleko yemveliso nemisebenzi yakwarhulumente ekhutshiweyo kunyaka ka 1929 yaba malunga ne94 yamawaka ezigidi, xa kubalwa ngamaxabiso okuthengisa. Kodwa xa ngaba bekusetyenziswe izisetyenziswa-kuvelisa zonke elo nani ngelingu 135 lamawaka ezigidi, engeyanele ukunika indlu nganye enyakeni iidola ezili USD4,370, ezilingene ukqinisekisa ukuphila okuhloniphekileyo yaye konwabisa. Ezi zibalo zovavanyo lwesizwe zibhekisele kucwangciso lwangoku lwaseAmerika lokuvelisa, komnye nomnye edontsela apho ethande khona. Ukuba ngaba izisetyenziswa kuveliswa bezingaxhotyiselwa ukusebenzela ukwanelisa uwonkewonke ngokwecebo lesoshiyalizim, ezi zibalo bezingagqithwa kude ngaphaya, ngosuku lokusebenza elifutshane kakhulu, nangokuphila okuhlonipheke kakhulu.

Ngoko ke ukuhlangula uluntu, akukho mfuneko yokuba kujongwe ukuqhubeleka phambili kobuchule, kuvalwe amashishini, kwabelwe abalimi ngamabhaso ukuba bonakalise ngabom izisetyenziswa kulima nemveliso yazo, ukwenza isinye esithathwini ukuba sibe ngoompula kalujacu, nokukhupha amageza endumangeni aze kuba ngoomlawuli-wedwa. Akukho nelinye kula manyathelo elifunekayo, kuba ewonke nje ayimpoxo eyothusayo ngeminqweno yoluntu. Into uluntu lungeke luye ndawo ngaphandle kwayo, nengxamisekileyo kukohlula izisetyenziswa kuvelisa kwiincukuthu ezingabanini bazo, nokulungiselela ulumtu ukusebenza ngecebo eliqiqileyo. Ngoko ke uluntu lungaba nakho ukunyanga zonke izigulo zalo ngokwenene. Bonke abakwazi ukusebenza baya kufumana umsebenzi. Usuku lokusrebenza luya kuya luba lufutshane. Iintswelo zawo onke amalungu oluntu ziyakufumana ukwaneliswa okuya kukhula ngokukhula. Amagama “ipropati”, “ikrayisis”, ‘inkqatho” ayakuphelelwa ngumsebenzi. Uluntu luyakugqibela luwutsibile umqobo ukungena ebuntwini bangenene.

Ukunganqandeki Kwesoshiyalizim

“Kwakunye nokuhlala kunciphe umphelo njalo inani lezikhulu zoongxowankulu” utsho uMarx, “kukhula umndilili wentlupheko, wengcinezelo, wobukhoboka, wokujongela phantsi ngengqondo, wokuphangwa; kodwa kunye nako oku kukhula ukuzabalaza kodidi labasebenzi, udidi oluqhubeka njalo lusanda ngamanani, yaye luqeqeshekile, lumanyene, lubumbene ngokwenziwa kukusetyenziswa njengomshini kumngcelele wokuvelisa woongxowankulu. Ukubekwa embindini phantsi kolawulo oluyintloko kwezisetyenziswa kuvelisa, nokudityaniselwa ukusebenza kwabantu, zigqibela zingasakwazi ukusebenzisana kakuhle phantsi kolawulo lo mnini yedwa koqoqosho. Kunyanzeleke ukuba olu lawulo lubhukuqwe. Litsho likhale ixilongo lobunini wedwa. Abaphuci baphucwe.” Nguwo ke lo umbhukuqo ongenisa isoshiyalizim. KuMarx ukwakha uluntu ngokutsha akuziswanga ngokommiselo othile okhuthazwe kukuzikhethela, ilandela umbhalo ongasulekiyo wendelebhu, ogunyazwe ngokwesigaba sexesha – kule nxenye, ngokwezisetyenziswa kuvelisa ezikhule zavuthwa ngamandla; kwenye inxenye, nokunyanzelisa ezi zityenziswa phantsi kwempembeleko yomthetho wolutho ekungenakwenzeka. Imibhalo yezifundiswa ezifunde kakhulu ithi azikhathali nokuba iimfundiso zikaMarx zithini na, ayikho into ethi isoshiyalizim yenzeka ngokungenakunqandwa, inako nje ukuba ingenzeka, konke okwazo ngamampunge. UMarx akazange athethe ukuthi isoshiyalizim ingehla ngaphandle kweminqweno nezenzo zomntu, umnakano onjalo awubhadlanga. UMarx wabonela phambili ngelithi, ekuweni koqoqosho apho uqoqosho loongxowankulu lukhulela ukuya kuphela khona ngokunyanzelekileyo, yaye ukuwa oku kuhla apha phambi kwamehlo ethu, akunandlela yimbi yokwenza ngaphandle kokuba isisetyenziswa kuvelisa zzithathelwe ulawulo luluntu. Izisetyenziswa kuvelisa zifuna umququzeli omtsha nomphathi omtsha, yaye, kuba yindlela umntu aphila ngayo eyenza indlela anakana ngayo, uMarx akazange abe nakuthandabuza ukuba udidi lwabasebenzi, ngokuchithekelwa ziindleko zamaphutha nokoyiswa kwimizamo emininzi, baya kude basiqonde esona simo abakuso, bade bafikelele kwisigqibo esifunekayoi esingasebenzayo.

Ukuba ukuthathwa luluntu kwezisetyenziswa kuvelisa eziveliswe ngoongxowankulu, kuluncedo olukhulu gqitha kwezoqoqosho, hayi ngokweengcingane zoluntu nje kuphela, kodwa nangomzekelo weRashiya, nakuba wawunezithinteli. Kuyinyaniso ukuthi, abachasi benkqubela phambili abathethelela ubungxowankulu, xa behlel’eqhingeni, basebenzisa umbuso kaStalin njengesoyikiso ngesoshiyalizim. Ebunyanisweni uMarx akazange athethe ngesoshiyalizim yelizwe elinye, nangaphezulu elisemva nalapho. Ukuswelwa okusaqhubekayo kwezinto ezifunekayo luninzi lwabantu eRashiya, ukuba namandla onke kwabo banamalungelo, abaziphakamise bazibeka ngaphezulu kwesizwe nentlupheko yaso, ekugqibeleni, umthetho wegqudu owande kakhulu kwabo basemagunyeni karhulumente, ayizoziphumo zoqoqosho lwesoshiyalizim, kodwa ziziphumo zokubekwa wedwa, usemva kakhulu ngenkqubela phambili, ujikelweze ngamazwe oongxowankulu. Ummangaliso kukuba phantsi kweempembeleko ezingalunganga njalo uqoqosho ngokwecebo lukwazi ukubonakalisa uncedo olungenakunqotywa.

Bonke abahlanguli benkqubo qoqosho yoongxowankulu, abalawuli ngesininzi nabo balawula ngomtu omnye yedwa, bayazama ukuwathoba okanye ukuwenza angaqondakali amandla ezikhulu zoongxowankulu, isisinikelo sokunqanda, ukuphucwa kwabaphuci. Bonke bayayiqonda, yaye uninzi lwabo luyavuma ngokuphandle, ukuba amalinge abo ukulungisa lo ndonakele woqoqosho, kufanele kuphelele ngobhukuqo mbuso ukulungiselela isoshiyalizim. Bonke bakwazile ukubonakalisa ndlela le basebenza ngayo ukusindisa olu qoqosho ukuba bachasene nenkqubela phambili okanye bazityhola ngolwazi abangenalo. Umqondiso kaMarx oxela ngokwenzeka kwesoshiyalizim ngokunganqandekiyo bungqinwa ngokubonela kwaba bayiphikisayo.

Ukunganqandeki Kwesoshiyalizim

Inkqubo “yokulawula amashishini ngeengcaphephe zobuchule” eyaduma ngexesha le ngxingo ka 1929 – 1932 yayifunyaniswe ngesindululo esilungileyo ukuba ukwakha uqoqosho ngengqiqo kungenzeka qha kuphela xa kungamanyana ubuchule encotsheni yesayensi norhulumente osebenza uluntu, Olu manyano lungenzeka xa ubuchule norhulumente engakhululwa ebukhobokeni bobumnini-wedwa. Uqala apho umsebenzi omkhulu wenguqulelo. Ukuze ukhulule ubuchule kwiqumrhu lokwenza amayelenqe lwaboomnini wedwa ukwenzela ukuthi urhulumente asebenze abantu, kuyanyanzeleka ukuba “kuphucwe abaphuci.” Ludidi olunamandla ngeyona ndlela, oluzimisele kwinkululeko yalo, yaye luphikisana nabaphuci abangooxhamla wedwa, olungafezekisa lo msebenzi. Qha  ngazwinye norhulumente wabasebenzi kungenzekayo ukuthi umanyano lwabo baphumeleleyo kuqeqesho lwezobuchule, lwakhe isayensi yangenyani nesizwe sangenyani, ngamafutshane umbuso woqoqosho lwesoshiyalizim.

Bekungangco, kona, xa ngaba oku bekungenzeka ngoxolo, kuthe chu kancane kancane, ngendlela yokusebenzisa ukhetho ngesininzi. Kodwa ke ucwangciso lokuphila koluntu eseliphelelwe lixesha alunikezeli ngaphandle kokulwa. Xa ngaba ukhetho ngesininzi lohluleke ukukhusela indyebo kwiintsapho ezimbadlwana, ngeliya xesha luselutsha lunamandla, ingaba kusengenzeka na ukuba eli lulupheleyo, lulawulo sininzi luhenxayo, ludilize lo mbuso ungathintelekiyo wezi ntsapho? Iingcingane neembali zoluntu zifundisa ukuthi inguqulelo yocwangciso lokuphila koluntu ilandela emva kodushe lomzabalazo wokungquzulana kweendidi zoluntu – ubhukuqo mbuso, oko kutsho. Nobukhoboka eAmerika abuzange bapheliswa ngaphandle kemfazwe yamakhaya. “Impi ngumbelekisikazi woluntu olumith’olunye.” Akukabikho mntu ukwazileyo ukuphikisa lo mthetho siseko xa kuthethwa ngobunzulu-lwazi ngoluntu oluqhekeke ngeendidi. Lubhukuqo mbuso ngabasebenzi bawuthabathele ezandleni zabo okungasikhokelela kwisoshiyalizim.

Izimvo Zikamarx Eamerika

Ilizwe laseAmerika ligqitha ngaphaya amanye amazwe ngobuchule nangocwangcisa ukuvelisa ezoqoqosho. AyingomaAmerika odwa, luluntu lonke luphela oluya kwakhela ngaphezulu kwesi siseko. Kanti, amanqanaba ahlukahlukeneyo enkqubo yoluntu kwisizwe sisinye njalo, anezingqisho ezingafaniyo, ngokweemeko nezehlo ezizodwa. Nangona iAmerika ivuyela ukongamela okukhulu kwezobuchule, iingcinga zayo kwezoqoqosho zisemva kakhulu, macala omabini amaqela ezimvo, elasekunene nelasekhohlo. UJohn L Lewis unezimvo ezibufana nezikaFranklin D Roosevelt. Xa uqwalasela ukuthi iofisi yakhe isebenza msebenzi mni, ukusebenzel’uluntu kuka Lewis kusemva ngokungalinganisekiyo nokukaRoosevelt, kungekathethwa ngukuchasa inkqubela phambili. Kwizangqa ezithile zaseAmerika kunomkhwa wokutyekela ukukhanyela le okanye leya ngcingane exhasa inguquko egqibeleleyo, kungekho ngxoxo-mpikisano ngokwesayensi, ngokuyigqiba nje ngelithi”ayisosiAmerika”. Xa kunjalo uyakuyifumana njani inkcaza nentsingisela kanobangela ngxoxo.

Ubukrestu bungeniswe eAmerika kwakunye nelogarithms,  nawesima-mhlaba, nezinye ekungeke kuthiwe azibalulekanga ezikhutshwa yingqondo yomntu. Namhlane izimvo zikaMarx zimi kunye noldidi.

UNobhala weZolimo, uHenry A Wallace wabek’ityala umbhali wale migca, “ukuzithemba okunciphe ngokunga akusosiAmerika kakubi” yaye xa kujongene nokuzithemba kwamaRashiya, uJefferson omphfumlo ukheth’amathuba amncedayo, owayesazi ukuba kusetyenziswana njani na neentshaba zakhe, “Ngukungathi akuzange kuthi qatha apha kuMnu Wallace, ukuba ubulumko bokuhlangabezana empikiswaneni  abuziswa ngumoya wobuzwe obungaphathekiyo, buza ngenxa yeemeko eziphathekayo. Isizwe esandayo ukutyeba ngokukhawuleza sineentsalela ezilingeneyo ukwakha uxolo phakathi kweendidi namaqumbu achaseneyo. Xa uchasano loluntu luloleka, umhlaba wokwakha uxolo uyanyamalala. IAmerika ikwazile ukungabi “nokuzithemba okunciphile” qha kuphela ngoba ibinemihlaba engekachukunyiswa nto, nendyebo enga ayipheli ngeziveliswa zendalo, namathuba angapheliyo okutyeba, kubonakala sengathi. Nyani nangaphantsi kwezo meko zokwakha umoya woxolo ayikwazekanga ukunqandeka Impi Yamakhaya xa iyure yayo igalelekile. Nangaphezulu koko, iimeko eziphathekayo ezazixhase obo “buAmerika” ziya zisithela nezolo. Kungako ke kufika ubunzima {ukuthandabuza nokuphikisana) kubunzulu-lwazi besiqhelo baseAmerika.

Ukucinga okukholose amava, okulinganiselwa imisetyenzana, ngoko nangoko, ilixa nelixa, kwabonakala kulingene ngokwaneleyo, emisebenzini nakwi zangqa zoongxowankulu, okwangoko umthetho kaMarx wolutho ubusacingela wonke umntu. Kodwa namhlanje wona ngokwawo uphikisana nesiqu sawo ngokungaxolanisekiyo. Endaweni yokududulela phambili uqoqosho, lo mthetho uzikisa intsika yalo. Ingcinga yokuman’ulinga ngoxolo okusebenzayo, nencam yophando-lwazi yayo, ukuzithemba, azilingene tu, nangona ingqalelo engenalo uthando yendelelo ebona iingcinga zikaMarx “njengokuzithemba” iya ingabonakali, ichasene nenkqubela phambili, ide igqibele ihlekisa. Kanti hayi, sekusesi siqhelo sombono “wobuAmerika” esiphelelwayo, sade saba “kukuzithemba” okungenakwabom okukhokhelela ekwenzeni iimpazamo nokubhideka, Kwangelo lixa iimfundiso ngoqoqosho zikaMarx zibonakalisa ubukhali nokusebenziseka eAmerika. Nangona ubungxowankulu bume ngokubhalwe emhlabeni wonke jikelele, ingakumbi ngesiNgesi, kwisiseko seengcingane zabo, luhlalutyo lobungxowankulu obungangxengwanga, ubungxowankulu bubonke, ubungxowankulu nje. Ngaphandle kwentandabuzo, ubungxowankulu obukhulela kumhlaba ongenambali, ongekachukunyiswa nto waseAmerika bubobona buyifaneleyo iAmerika.

Ngaphandle kobukho buka Mnu Wallace, uqoqosho lweEmerika lukhule, hayi ngemithehto siseko kaJefferson, kodwa ngokuvumelanayo neengcinga zikaMarx. Akukho nokuncinci okukhubekisa ikratyi ngobuzwe xa uvuma leyo nto, kufana nje naxa uvuma ukuthi iAmerika ijikeleza ilanga ngokungqinelanayo nemithetho kaNewton. Ngokuya kusongezeka ukungahoywa kukaMarx eAmerika, kuungokuya kunyanzeleka ukuba zamkelwe iimfundiso zakhe. Ubungxowankulu bukhupha isiphumo esingenampzamo sokuxilonga isifo, nomqondiso wokusenokwenzeka ngesi sifo okungenakutshintshwa mntu. Kobo bulumko iimfundiso zikaMarx zigcwele qhu “ubuAmerika” ukugqitha iingcinga zikaHoover noRoosevelt nezika Green noLewis.

Nyani, zininzi iincwadi zokuqala ezibhaliweyo ngobunzima bokuwa koqoqosho lwaseAmerika. Ukuya ngababhali ngoqoqosho abazihluphayo bakhupha umfanekiso wokwenzekayo nje ngokuba kusenzeka, amanyathelo okuthanda ukutshabalalisa kobungxowankulu baseAmerika, za kuza ezingcingeni zabo, ezibunqabarha nalapho, kuvele kube ngathi kuthethwa ngeengcingane zikaMarx. Iziqhelo ezitsalela emva ziziveza, phofu, xa aba babhali bezibamba ngabom ukugqibezela ngokuphandle, ngokuxela ngengomso elimnyama,

Beze nhlaziyo olungaqhelekanga, “ilizwe maliqonde”, “uluvo luka wonke wonke malucinge ngokuqinisekileyo”, njalo, njalo. Ezi ncwadi zibonakala njengemela engenacala elisikayo, okanye ikhampasi engenamalathisi wayo.

IAmerika yayike yaba nabo abalandeli bakaMarx kudala, yinyaniso leyo, kodwa babe ngulo mhlobo ungaqhelekanga, okanye kungathi, babezintlobo ezintathu ezingaqhelekanga. Okokuqala yayingaba basuke eYurophu ukuya kuhlala eAmerika ngezizathu zepolitika, benza kangangoko benako, abafumana mlandeli; okwesibini, yayingamaqumrhu azihlukanisileyo,afana neeDe Leonists, abathi ekuhambeni kwethuba, ngempazamo zabo, bagqibela bengamasetyana ango zimele geqe ngokuzikholwa ngokwabo; okwesithathu, ingamaqhitala,abantu abaqala into abanganamsebenzi nayo okanye abangayaziyo, betsalwe lubhukuqo mbuso ngoOktobha, benovelwano neemfundiso zikaMarx, njengeemfundiso nje ezingaqhelekanga, ezinanto enokwenza neAmerika. IIntsuku zabo ziphelile. Ngoku kusa imini yesigaba sexesha esitsha ebasebenzini,  sentshukumo yodidi elizimeleyo, nesezimfundiso zikaMarx zangenene. Nalapho, iAmerika iya kweqa iUrophu ngaphaya igqibe iyigqithe. Inkqubela phambili kwezobuchule nakwezoluntu ziya kuvula eyazo indlela nakwezengcingane. Iintshatsheli ngengcingane zika Marx ziya kuvela eAmerika. UMarx uya kuba ngumqeqeshi wabasebenzi abaphambili base Amerika. Kubo le ncwadana ishwankathela umqulu wokuqala iya kuba linyathelo lokuqala ukuya kwamkela uMarx ewonke.

Umfanekiso Wenkqubo Yobungxowankulu Ofanelekayo

Ngelixa umqulu wokuqala wencwadi iCapital ukhutshwa ulawulo lomhlaba wonke lwaluphantsi koongxowankulu bamaNgesi, lungekaphikiswa. Imithetho engabhalwanga ndawo yoqoqosho lwekhomodithi, yazifumana ivakala ngokuphathekayo – oko kutsho, le ixhomekeke kancikane kuthelelwano ngokusekwadlulayo – kwilizwe apho inkqubo yoongxowankulu yayiphambili ngokugqithisileyo ngenkqubela. Nangona wayexhomekeke eNgilandi, ubukhulu becala, wayengacalucaluli yona kuphela, wayeqwalasele ubungxowankulu bomhlaba jikelele. Wathatha iNgilandi njengomfanekiso wangeloxesha.

Sele kusele izikhumbuzo nje ngokongamela kwamaNgesi. Ngoku ukuxhamla kokuvela kuqala kuguquke kwaba sisithintelo. Isakhiwo sobuchule nesoqoqosho saseNgilandi sigugile. Eli lizwe liyaqhubeka ukuxhomekeka ebukumkanini bokuqulatha amanye amazwe, okulifa lexesha eseladlulayo, endaweni yoqoqosho olusebenzayo olusenokwenzeka kulo. Oko kuchaza, ngokungalindelekanga, umanyano lwesisa sesikresti lukaChamberlain lokunikela kubuhange bezizwe zababusa wedwa, nto ke leyo eyothuse wonke umntu. Oongxowankulu bamaNgesi abakwazi ukungaqondi ukuthi ukuwa koqoqosho lwabo akusahambiselani nesikhundla sabo ezizweni, yaye imfazwe entsha yothusela ngokuzisa ukuwa kobongameli babo. Okunye okufanayo ngokubalulekileyo ngesiseko soqoqosho, kukungafuni mfazwe kwamaFura.

IJamani, ngokuchasene noko, ekukhuphukeni ngokukhawuleza kobungxowankulu, isebenzise inzuzo yokuvela mva, ngokuzixhobisa ngobona bugqityiweyo ngobuphambili e, ngokuzixhobisa ngobona bugqityiweyo ngobuphambili eUrophu ubuchule. Ngokuba nesiseko esimxinwa sobuzwe nobuhlwempu ngezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo, ubungxowankulu obunamandla baseJamani banyanzeleka ukuba buguquke bande ngophanyazo obungadubula nanini na phantsi kwamandla alinganayo ezizwe ezikhulu zehlabathi. Ukungacingi kakuhle ngokunga unesifo sokuwa kukaHitler kungumfanekiso wobungxowankulu baseJamani obunesifo sokuwa.

Nangaphezulu kokuzuza ngendlela ezininzi ngembali yendlela nexesha ubungxowankulu baseAmerika buqhamke ngayo, ukukhula kwabo buye bancedwa kukubalasela kobukhulukazi bomhlaba obubabazekayo nokuba nezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo ezingaphaya kude le nezaseJamani. Bakuba bedlule iNgilandi ngokubhekiselele, baye baba yinqaba eyintloko yobungxowankulu bomhlaba jikelele ekuqalekeni kweli khulu le minyakasisuka kulo. Onke amandla inkqubo yobungxowankulu engabanawo, aziveze ngokucacileyo apha eAmerika. Ayikho enye indawo kule planethi sikuyo apho ungxowankulu azise impumelelo egqitha le yeriphabliki yedola, ekunguwona mfanekiso ufanela ubungxowankulu belikhulu  le minyaka lesishumi nambini.

Nanje ngokuba uMarx wakhetha ukuseka iimfundiso zakhe kwingqokelela yamanani esiNgesi, kwiingxelo zepalamente yamaNgesi, kwiincwadi eziluhlaza zamaNgesi, nako konke ekufana noko, sigqibe kwelokuba kule ntshayelelo encinane yethu sinike ubungqina ikakhulu ngoqoqosho nezopolitiko zaseAmerika. Akungeke kube nzima, kungekho namfuneko ukuba side sitsho, ukuza nezithelekeliso ngezehlo namanani, zobungxowankulu balo naliphi na elinye ilizwe. Kodwa oko akuyi kongeza nto ebalulekileyo. Isiphelo iya kuhlala isiso esi, nto nje imizekelo iya kuba nganeno ngokucaca kuna le yase Amerika.

Inkqubo yezoqoqosho yezo phati zisebenzisana Ngentsebenzo Kunye, kuba zoyisiwe kukuphumelela ngesininzi zizodwa, eFura, ukuyibeka ngendlela esinye isityebi siyibeke kakuhle ngayo, isiVumelwano esiTsha sikukunikezela eziphatini ezincinane. Kuselubala ukuba kuhlalutyo lweengcingane kungcono kungcono ukusebenza ngezilinganiso ezinkulu kune zincikane. Bubukhulu obumangalisayo bako oko kulingwa nguRoosevelt okubonakalisa ukuba ngummangaliso kuphela ongasindisa ubungxowankulu behlabathi. Kodwa sele kwenzekile ukuthi ukukhula kokuvelisa koqoqsho lobungxowankulu kuphelise ukuveliswa kwento ebizwa ngokuthi ingummangaliso. Iintshwabulo nemithandazo ngobuninzi bazo, imimangaliso ayize yenzeke. Noxa kunjalo, ukuba ngaba kukho apho, xa kusenokwenzeka nyani, ummangaliso wokubuyel’ebutsheni ungenzeka hayi kwenye indawo ngaphandle kwaseAmerika. Nalapho oko akwenzekanga. Apho kwahluleke iiphati ezinkulu ezincinane azinakuphumelela. Ukwandlalela isiseko sokufikelela kwesi siphumo esizicaceleyo, kungalo ngcamango ke siye saphambukela kuqoqosho lwaseAmerika.

Amazwe Aquleth’amanye Naqulethweyo

“Ilizwe eliqhubele phamabili ngeshishini,” utsho uMarx kwintshayelelo yoshicilelo lokuqala lomqulu wokuqala wencwadi yakhe iCapital, “libonisa qha kweli lingemva umfanekiso wengomso lalo.” Nangaphantsi kwayiphi na imeko, le ngcinga mayingamkelwa ukuba injalo, igama negama. Ukukhula kwezisetyenziswa kuvelisa nokwanda kokungangqinelani koluntu, ngaphandle kwentandabuzo ngokwamazwe onke angene endleleni yobungxowankulu. Nangona kunjalo, ukungalingani kwefuthe nomgangatho, okwenzeka kuko konke ukuqhubekela phambili koluntu yaye emongweni kunezizathu zangendalo nezangeembali, azanela ukubazeka ngakumbi ngelixa lobungxowankulu, kodwa kwazisa koku kuxhomekelelana kokuqulathwa, kokuphangwa, nokokucinezelwa phakathi kwamazwe entlobontlobo ezahlukeneyo zoqoqsho. Ambalwa amazwe adlule ekukhuleni ngendlela emisiweyo nengqinelana nokuqiqileyo, ukusukela ebuchuleni ngokusebenza ngezandla, ukuzivelisela ekhaya okanye I”fektri” yasemakhaya ukuya kwifektri yokwenyani, le uMarx wayihlaltya ngokondeleyo. Inkunzi okanye ikhapitali yorhwebo, yeshishini, neyezeemali yangenela amazwe asemva ukuwaphangela abo, ngenxenye ukudiliza uqoqosho olusasalele emva labemi belo lizwe, ngenxenye babaqhubela kuleyo ese igcwele umhlaba wonke, imkqubo yoshishino neyokusebenzisa iibhanki yaseNtshona. Phantsi kwesabhokhwe sala mazwe aquleth’amanye, aqulethweyo nala abuquluthwarha, azifumane enyanzelekile ukungahoyi okanye ukutsiba izigama zohambo eziphakathi nezinye, kwamanye amaxa bazifumane bebambelele ngokungeyondalo nakuwuphi na umgangatho. Ukukhula kweIndiya akuzange kubuyelele ngokufananyo ukukhula kweNgilandi, yayikukongeza kuyo. Ngoko ke, ukuze kuqondakale uhlobo lokudibana kokukhula kwelizwe elisemva neliqulethwe lelinye nje ngelaseIndiya, kuyafuneka ngalo lonke ixesha ukukhumbula uyilo lodidi uMarx alifumanisa kwinkqubela phambili yaseNgilandi. Umthetho othi umsebenzi lulutho, ukhokhela ngokufanayo kwizibalo zabantu abathenga bathengise izahlulo zamashishini esixekweni saseLandani, nezimali ekutshintshwana ngazo kwiikona ezisemva eHyderabad, ngaphandle nje kokuba apha zingcono ukungqala nobumenemene abungako.

Ukungalingani kokukhula kwamazwe aphambili, kwawanikeza inzuzo engaphaya, la, nangona ngamanqanaba angafaniyo, aqhubeka ukukhula ngokuphanga asemva, nokuwaguqula abe ngaquletweyo, okanye ubuncikane, nokwenza angabinako ukwamkelwa zizikhulu zobungxowankulu. Ubutyebi, baseSpain, eHoland, eNgilandi naseFura bafumaneka hayi qha ngokuphanga abasebenzi babo, hayi qha ngokutshabalalisa oophangwane babo, nokuphanga izinto ebazibangayo kumazwe angaphandle. Ukuphangwa kweendidi zoluntu kongezwa, namandla ongezeka ngokuphanga amanye amazwe. Oongxowankulu bamazwe aquleth’amanye bakwazi ukuphatha ngcono abasebenzi babo, ingakumbi abathathelwa phezulu, ngokubanyoba ngeenzuzo eziphakeme zala mazwe. Ngaphandle koko ukulawula ngeninzi okuzolileyo bekungenako ukwenzeka. Kukuzibonakalisa ngokunwebiweyo ulawulo ngesininzi loongxowankulu lwa yaye lusa qhubeka ukuba ngula mhlobo worhulumente ofumaneka kwizikhulu zoongxowankulu nakwizizwe ezicinezele ezinye. Ulawulo ngeninzi lakudala laluziseke ngobukhoboka, olamazwe aquleth’amanye – ekuphangweni kwamanye amazwe.

IAmerika, eyona ngokusesikweni, iphantse ingabi nalo eliquletheyo, noxa kunjalo, le lona lizwe linelungelo elilodwa ngaphezulu kwawo onke amanye. Abangeneleli baseUrophu bazithabathela ilizwekazi elityebe ngokugqithisileyo, batshabalalisa abemi balo, bazixhwiphulela eyona ndawo ichumileyo eMexico, bazithathela esona sake sasikhulu isixa sobutyebi behlabathi. Amanqathe afukanywe apho asaqhubeka ukusebenza nakweli lixa lobunzima, ngokuthambisa injini namavili enkqubo yoongxowankulu.

Amava abumini nje, nohlalutyo zingcingane zingqinelana nokuthi isantya sokukhula kwenzolo yolawulo ngeninzi sifana nesantya sokuhla okanye ukudodobala kokungangqinelani kweendidi zoluntu. Kula mazwe oongxowankulu angenamalungelo atheni ekungathethwa ngawo, (afana neRashiya, kweli cala; neJamani, neItaly, namanye afana nalawo, kwelinye icala); la mazwe akakwazanga ukunyoba igcuntswana labasebenzi, ngoko ke ulawulo ngeninzi labo alubanga nakuzinza kungakanani phambi kokuba ngokulula nje lunikezele kulawulo ngomntu wedwa. Nakuba kunjalo, oku kungxwelerha kwenkqubo yoongxowankulu kuqhubekayo, kulungiselela nalawo anamalungelo abonakalayo, atyebe gqitha ukuba abhekane nelo dinga lala angenamalungelo atheni, ahlukana ahlukana nje ngeemini zedinga.  Ukudlakazelisa ekungalawulisekiyo intlalo yabasebenzi ukuba ibe ngeyobuhlwempu, benza oongxowankulu baye besiya ukungabi nako ukunika umndilili ilungelo lokungenela ezopolitiko, kohluthwe nalo elo libekelwe umda ongenakugqithwa lwepalamente. Engenye inkcaza ngokudilizwa kolawulo ngeninzi lulawulo ngomntu wedwa, kukugqwetha izinto engqondweni kunokuzibeka njengokuba zinjalo, okanye ukulahleka ngokuzilahlekisa. Naxa bediliza ulawulo ngeninzi kumazwe aquleth’amanye, bathintela ukuvela nokukhula kolawulo ngeninzi kumazwe asemva futhi. Okokuba kutsha nje akukabikho nelinye ilizwe, kula aqulethweyo okanye abuqulathwarha, elikwazileyo ukufezekisa elalo ulawulo ngeninzi, ingakumbi ukucombulula unxano okanye udingo lo mhlaba, nto ke leyo esisithintelo esikhulu esixabileyo endleleni yenkqubela phambili ngezoqoqosho nezopolitiko. Ukuphangwa kwezisetyenziswa kuvelisa zendalo, nokuthintela ngabom ukukhula kwamashishini azimeleyo, izikhulu zooxhamla wedwa noorhulumente babo, bakhupha ngaxeshanye izipho, ngeemali, ngezopolitiko, ngezemfazwe, bexhasa abachasa nkqubela phammbili, abancukuthayo, abazifihla ngokuzenza abathetheleli bezithethe namasiko ezolo, ingabaphangi abangamabandla abantu belo lizwe. Ukulondolozwa ngendlela engenzekiyo endalweni kobungcwangu, kobukrwada, kobukrelemnqa, ngentlalo yabantu abaphila ngomhlaba namhlanje, bungubhubhane okhohlakeleyo woqoqsho lo mhlaba jikelel. Umzabalazo wenkululeko, wabantu bamazwe aqulethwe ngamanye, agqitha ezinye izigama zohambo, ajike abhekane nala mazwe aquleth’awabo, axhas’abasebenzi bawo ukuqethula oongxowankulu babo. Ukuvukel’umbuso neemfazwe zala mazwe aqulethweyo zinyakazisa isiseko sobungxowankulu  bomhlaba wonke gokungaphaya kangangokuba ummangaliso wokuzalwa ngakutsha kwawo kungabisabinako ukwenzeka.

Ucwangciso-Cebo Loqoqosho Lehlabathi Jikelele

Uqoqosho loongxowankulu luphumelele ngezidanga ezimbini, ekukhuphuleni izinga lobuchule liye phezulu, nokubandakanya onke amazwe omhlaba mgamaqhina oqoqosho. Ngokwenza njalo busakhile isiseko esibambekayo sokusetyenziswa kwezisetyenziswa kuvelisa ngocwangciso. Noxa kunjalo ubungxowankulu abanakho ukuwufezekisa lo msebenzi ongxamisekileyo. Ukunqwenel’ukwanda kwenzeka kumazwe angqongwe yimida nezindlu zerhafu, nemikhosi. Noxa, izisetyenziswa kuvelisa sezikhule ngaphaya kwale mida noburhulumente bala mazwe, izinto ebezikhuthaza, ngokwenza njalo ziguqulela oko bekukhuthaza inkqubela phambili kube sisithintelo esinganyamelezekiyo. Iimfazwe zamazwe aquleth’amanye, aziyo nto engenye ngaphandle nje kokudlabhuka kwezisetyenziswa kuvelisa kule mida, ese iziminxanisele kakhulu. Udweliso lwenkqubo yento ekuthiwa kukuzimela kwelizwe, ayinanto enokwenza noqoqsho oluzingqongileyo oluzilingeneyo. Oko, mhlawumbi, kukulungisa isizwe sizilungisele imfazwe.

Emva kweMvumelwano yaseVersailles isayiniwe, Kwakukho inkolo eyamkelayo ukuthi ihlabathi lohlulahlulwe kakuhle. Kodwa izehlo zakamva nje zikhumbuza ukuthi le planethi isenamazwe angakaphangwa nangakaphangwa ngokupheleleyo. IItaly ifake ebukhobokeni iAbyssinia. IJapan ifuna ukuqulqtha iChina. Yakukhathal ukulindela ukbuyiselwa kwamazwe ayo iJamani yenze iChechoslovakia ilizwe eliquletheyo. IItaly ingenele iAlbania. Nongasiqithi ezntsi kwaseUrophu akukacaci ukuthi kuyakuphelela kusini na. Iamerika iyaxhunguphala ukubona amazwe “angaphandle” engenela izwekazi lase mazantsi Amerika. Umzabalazo wokulwel’amazwe asemva uyaqhubeka phakathi kwamazwe aqulath’amanye. Noba lingahlulahlulwa njani ihlabathi kuyakusoloko kufuneka ukuthi lihlulahlulwe kwakhona ngokokuthelelisana kwamandla amazwe aquleth’amanye. Esi sesona sizathu namhlanje, sokuzixhobisa kwakhona, ukuphithizela kwabazakuzi, namamanyano emfazwe.

Onke amalinge okwenza le mfazwe izayo ibe kukungqubana kweengcinga zolawulo ngeninzi nezolawulo ngomntu wedwa, kukungabinalwazi okanye bubudenge. Iintlobo zobupolitika ziyatshintsha, uburhamncwa bukangxowankulu buhlala buhleli. Ukuba ngaba umbuso womntu wedwa ungabekwa apha nangaphaya koMjelokazi wamaNgesi, yaye akukho namnye ongaphikisayo ukuthi oko kusenokuhla, kubo bobabini- owaseLandani nowaseParis, akekho onganikezela ngako oko abakuphange kumazwe abawaquletheyo, nanje ngoMussolini noHitler ngokwabo ukuphanga. Umzabalazo oxabeneyo nongenathemba wokwahlulwa ngakutsha kwehlabathi kulandela ngokunganqandekiyo ukunzinyelwa koqoqosho loongxowankulu.

Ukuxokomezela apha naphaya akuyi kunceda nto. Imbali yoluntu sele ifikele kwelo nqanaba, apho kunganceda kuphela ungenelo ngqo ngumndilili ngokwawo, utshayele le nkunkuma yezithinteli zenkqubela phambili, ubeke isiseko senkqubo entsha. Ukutshatyalaliswa kobunini wedwa bezisetyenziswa kuvelisa, kulilona nyathelo lokuqala ukuya kucwangciso loqoqosho; oko kutsho, ukungenisa ingqiqo entlalweni jikelele yoluntu, okuqala elizweni, ekugqibeleni emhlabeni wonke uphela. Kwakuqala, ukubhukuq’umbuso ukwkh’isoshiyalizim, kuyakusasazeka ilizwe ngelizwe, ngamandla angenakulinganiswa ukuwagqitha, nala asasaza ulawulo lomntu wedwa namhlanje. Ngomzekelo, nangoncedo lwamazwe aphambili, izizwe ezisele emva ziyakuthwalwa ukuya kwisoshiyalizim. Namabandezi erhafu abolileyo aya kuwa. Nempkisano eyahlukanisa iUrophu namanye amazwe ehlabathi ziyakufumana ukuconjululwa, ngoxolo ngokunga kwadalwa kunjalo, kwisoshiyalizim yezizwe ezimanyeneyo zaseUrophu, nezilandela ezo ngomanyano de lube lugqibe ihlabathi lonke liphela. Uluntu olukhululekiyo luya kuphakama lube nobuntu ngenene.